56 terms

Pre-Columbian World

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Clovis I
Ruled the Franks from 481 to 511 A.D. and converted to Christianity.
Charles Martel
Mayor of the Palace who led Frankish forces to victory over an invading Muslim army at the Battle of Tours in 732 A.D.
Gaul
Roman name for a region of Western Europe encompassing modern France and surrounding areas.
Franks
Germanic tribe that moved into much of Gaul beginning in the 400s A.D.
Merovingian
Name of the early dynasty that ruled over the Franks from the mid 5th century A.D. until the mid 8th century.
Battle of Tours
732 A.D. battle during which the Frankish forces defeated the invading Muslim forces, causing the Muslim army to retreat south of the Pyrenees Mountains (border between modern France and Spain).
This halted the spread of Islam into Western Europe and ensured that Christianity continued to be the dominant religion of the Frankish controlled region.
Pepin the Short
Mayor of the Palace who removed the last Merovingian from the throne and had himself crowned King of the Franks.
Pepin the Short
Founder of the Carolingian dynasty.
Carolingian
Frankish dynasty founded by Pepin the Short that peaked in power and influence with the rule of Charlemagne.
Charlemagne
Frankish King crowned Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Day in 800 A.D.
Carolingian Renaissance
Name sometimes given to the reign of Charlemagne due to his support of education and the arts.
Charlemagne
King who, along with his brother (who died after 3 years), succeeded Pepin the Short in 768 A.D. and ruled over the Franks until 814.
Vikings
Generic term for Scandinavian raiders that attacked and raided coastal Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries.
Vikings
Scandinavians who established colonies in Iceland, Greenland and (briefly) in North America in the 9th and 10th centuries A.D.
Normandy
Region of modern-day France ceded by the King of Western Francia to the Viking Chieftan Rollo in exchange for an end to Viking raids on his kingdom.
Charles the Bald, Lothair the Elder, and Louis the German
Charlemagne's son partitioned the empire between his three sons. Name them.
Treaty of Verdun (843)
What treaty ended the three year civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne and helped lay the foundations for modern-day France and Germany?
Knight
Though usually trained extensively in all manner of warfare, this warrior and member of the lower nobility in the Middle Ages is usually associated with fighting from horseback.
Castles
These Medieval fortified structures allowed members of the nobility to control the surrounding territory and frequently served as administrative centers. Their functionality as a defensive stronghold was rendered somewhat obsolete with the widespread use of cannons.
Battle of Hastings (1066)
Battle which resulted in the death of King Harold and the crowning of William (the Conqueror) as King of England.
Feudalism
Term for the social, economic, military, and political systems practiced in Medieval Europe that was based on relationships between lords and vassals and the control of land in the form of fiefs.
Serfs
Medieval European agricultural workers who were bound to the land and forced to serve the lord who owned it.
High Middle Ages
Period of European history from around 1000 A.D. to around 1300 A.D. during which an increase in political stability, a moderate climate, and a lack of widespread outbreaks of disease led to an increase in Europe's population and a revival of urban life.
Crusade
The first of these was called for by Urban II in 1095 A.D. It successfully seized territory in the Holy Land, including the creation of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Third Crusade
This crusade was initially led by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, King Phillip II (Augustus) of France and King Richard I (the Lionheart) of England. Barbarossa drowned on the way and Phillip returned to France after the fall of Acre (in modern-day northern Israel).
Saladin (An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub)
Founder of the Ayyubid dynasty and leader of the Muslim army that defeated the crusader forces at the Battle of Hattin. This defeat led the Pope to call for the Third Crusade.
Fourth Crusade
This crusade never made it to the Holy Land. The knights of this crusade attacked Venice's rival, the Christian city of Zara, in return for passage to Constantinople. They eventually sacked Constantinople and killed the Byzantine emperor.
Roman Catholic Church
What became the most powerful institution in Medieval Europe?
Henry II (1154 - 1189)
What King helped lay the foundation of English Common Law and set up a legal system which would eventually use a system of judges and juries to determine guilt and punishment?
King John (1199 - 1216)
King of England who agreed to the Magna Carta at Runnymede in 1215.
1215
Year that King John agreed to the terms of the Magna Carta.
King Phillip II (Philip Augustus)
French King who briefly fought alongside King Richard the Lionheart at Acre, but returned to France and eventually managed to take control of Normady, Poitou and Anjou away from the English King John (Richard's younger brother).
1347 A.D.
The year that the Black Death first spread to western Europe aboard Genoese trading ships sailing from the Black Sea.
bubonic plague
The Black Death is also known as the
33% or 1/3
Modern scholars estimate that, at minimum, what percentage of Western Europeans died during the first outbreak of the Black Death (1347 - 1353)?
Jews
In a number of cases across Europe, what group was blamed for the spread of the plague and attacked?
Hanseatic League
What is the name of the group of guilds and towns that dominated much of the trade through the North and Baltic Seas for several hundred years beginning around the year 1400?
The Hundred Years' War
What name is given to the series of conflicts between England and France lasting from 1337 to 1453?
Longbow
What weapon allowed the English forces to win several decisive battles during the Hundred Years' War?
Joan of Arc
Name the teenaged, female peasant who helped rally the French forces to victory over the English siege of Orleans (1428 - 1429).
The French
Who eventually won The Hundred Years' War?
The Wars of the Roses
What name is given to the series of conflicts over control of the English throne (1455 - 1485)?
Battle of Bosworth Field (1485)
What was the final battle of the Wars of the Roses?
The House of Lancaster and the House of York
What two "houses", or families, fought over the throne in the Wars of the Roses?
Richard III
Name the Yorkist king killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field (1485).
Henry Tudor (King Henry VII)
What Lancastrian led his forces to victory at Bosworth Field?
King Henry VIII
Who succeeded King Henry VII on the English throne?
Reconquista
The series of wars to retake the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims is known as the
Iberian Peninsula
Name the peninsula occupied by the modern day countries of Spain and Portugal.
Aragon and Castille
What two Iberian kingdoms combined through the marriage of their monarchs to form Spain in 1469?
King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile
Name the two rulers who married in 1469 and combined their territories to form Spain?
1492
In what year did Spanish forces take control of Granada, the last territory on the Iberian Peninsula controlled by Muslim rulers?
Granada
What was the last territory controlled by Muslims on the Iberian Peninsula?
1492
In what year did Spain expel all practicing Jews from their territory?
Spanish Inquisition
What was established in 1478 in an attempt to ensure that the only religion practiced in Spanish controlled territory was Roman Catholicism?
Tomas de Torquemada (usually just known as Torquemada)
Name the first Grand Inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition.