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The events of respiration are
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Terms in this set (83)
Arielle is an 8-year-old with cystic fibrosis. For 30 minutes each morning and evening, a parent holds her body in various positions and massages and kneads the areas over her lungs to dislodge the abundant, sticky mucus, which Arielle spits into a jar. She also takes medication - an enzyme - that thins the mucus. If she didn't take these measures, the mucus in her lungs would most likely increase her risk of
the procedure used to directly examine the trachea and bronchial tree is calledbronchoscopyThe mucous membrane lining the nasal cavitywarms incoming air, moistens incoming air, entraps dust, entraps other small particlesThe pharynx functions as a ______, whereas the larynx functions as a ______.common passageway for air and food; passageway for air onlyThe tracheais lined with a ciliated mucous membrane, includes 20 C-shaped cartilage rings, is a passageway for air, is also called the windpipe.As the respiratory tube branches become finerthe epithelial lining changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to cuboidal and simple squamous epithelium.The right lung has ______ lobes; the left lung has ______ lobessuperior, middle, and inferior; superior and inferiorThe force that moves air into the lungs during inspiration comes from theatmospheric pressureThe force responsible for normal expiration is supplied by theelastic recoil of tissues and surface tensionThe volume of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle is thetidal volumeOf the respiratory air volumes listed, which one has the largest volume?vital capacityRespiratory distress syndrome in newborns is caused bylack of surfactantThe visceral and parietal pleural membranes are normally held together bya thin film of serous fluidAir entering the potential space of the pleural cavity is calledpneumothoraxA simple spirometer cannot measure which of the following air volumes?risidual volume. The most sensitive areas of the air passages are in thelarynx and bronchi.The volume of air that enters (or leaves) during a single respiratory cycle is thetidal volumeThe first event in inspiration isthe diaphragm moves downward and the external intercostal muscles contractThe first event in expiration isthe diaphragm and external intercostal respiratory muscles relaxThe inverse relationship between pressure and volume is known asBoyle's lawThe probable function of yawning. is poorly understood. The respiratory areas are in thepons and medulla oblongata"I'm going to hold my breath until I turn blue and stop breathing and die and it will be all your fault!" shrieked the 6-year-old at her father. The child was unable to carry out her threat becauseincreased CO2 and hydrogen ion concentration and decreased oxygen concentration stimulate chemoreceptorsBaby Timothy suffers from apnea and is hooked up to a monitor to warn his parents when he stops breathing. Timothy's dad snores very loudly. Timothy's condition differs from his father's in that infant apnea isa central problem of respiratory controlEmily is winded from running to her car from the supermarket. It is late at night and she thinks she is being followed. Which of the following receptors would not be involved in regulating her breathing rate?BaroreceptorsThe ventral part of the medulla oblongata near the origin of the vagus nerve hascentral chemoreceptorsWhich of the following factors does not directly affect breathing rate?phPeripheral receptors stimulate the respiratory areas resulting inincreased respiratory rate. The partial pressure of oxygen that stimulates the respiratory areas is ___ of normal50%Oxygen plays a minor role in control of normal respiration becausedeoxygenated venous blood is 75% saturatedWhich of the following is important in maintaining the pH of bloodCarbon dioxideThe chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies are most sensitive to changes in blood concentration ofoxygenCarbon dioxide is sometimes added to the air that a patient breathes in order to. increase the rate and depth of breathingHyperventilation is usually accompanied by a(n)decrease in blood CO2 concentration and a rise in pHMax works out about an hour every day, using aerobic machines at a gym. During his moderate physical exercise, blood concentrations ofoxygen and carbon dioxide remain nearly unchangedIncreasing blood concentrations of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions have similar effects upon the respiratory areas due toan increase in carbon dioxide, increasing hydrogen ionsThe walls of the alveoli are composed ofsimple squamous epithelium.. The respiratory membrane consists oftwo thicknesses of epithelial cells and basement membranesAlveoli are kept clean by the action ofmacrophages.. In bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the lungs of newborns become inflamed and scarred. Most infants recover, but some die. An experimental treatment cultures stem cells from a newborn's umbilical cord. The stem cells, in a lab dish, give rise to type II cells, which in turn give rise to more type I cells. In this treatmentthe type II cells secrete surfactant and the type I cells form the respiratory membranePolice stop Richard for driving erratically at 3 AM and give him a breathalyzer test, which he fails miserably because ofthe thinness of his respiratory membranes. The amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin increases whencarbon dioxide concentration increasesThe enzyme carbonic anhydrase causescarbon dioxide to react with water.Which of the following proteins transports some carbon dioxide in the bloodhemoglobinglobin is. the protein part of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood. The chloride shiftmaintains the ionic balance between the red blood cells and the plasma.A mother and two young children are found passed out in their apartment, where a space heater is on. Emergency medical technicians suspect carbon monoxide poisoning, so they give the patientshighly concentrated oxygen and some carbon dioxideChanges in the respiratory system that accompany aging arethickened mucus. B. slowed swallowing reflex. C. macrophages become less efficient at keeping bacteria out. D. cilia become less active or vanishExposure to secondhand smoke can cause or increase risk ofheart disease, lung cancer, and low birth weightExposure to secondhand smoke increases risk ofdamage to the smooth endothelial lining of blood vessels. B. platelet activation C. abnormal blood clotting. D. decreased coronary artery blood flow.Cancer that originates in the lungs is most likely to begin inepithelial (lining) cellsSmokers are more susceptible to respiratory infections becausetheir respiratory passages lose cilia, which would otherwise remove bacteriaIn emphysemapressure in alveoli increases and their walls burst, coalescing them and decreasing the surface area for gas exchangeIn October 2001 at the site of the World Trade Center in New York City, fires were still burning from the terrorist attacks that had brought down the buildings. The greatest danger to the respiratory system wasvery small particles of debrisA disorder seen in people who work in factories that package buttered popcorn, caused by inhaling organic dust, isextrinsic allergic alveolitisBronchial asthma is usually caused byan allergyDuring an asthma attack, the patient usually finds it most difficult toexhaleEmphysema increasesnone of the aboveBreathing rate increases during exercise due tosignals from the cerebral cortex to the respiratory areas when it also signals skeletal muscles to contract. B. muscle stimulation of proprioceptors. C. a joint reflex. D. stimulation of the respiratory areas by decreasing blood concentration of oxygen and increasing blood concentration of carbon dioxide.The hypoxia associated with high altitude can causevasoconstriction of the pulmonary blood vesselsAt high altitudes, when capillary pressure becomes too high,fluid filters out of the blood and collects in the alveoliAtelectasis isa collapsed lung.In tuberculosisfibrous connective tissue forms around the sites of bacterial infection.Pneumonia can be caused bybacteria, viruses, or fungiThe bronchus and blood vessels enter a lung through the _______.hilumThe nasal conchae create passageways in the nasal cavity called ______.meatusesThe cartilaginous structure at the base of the tongue that helps to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during swallowing is the ______.epiglottisThe layer of serous membrane that is firmly attached to the surface of a lung is called ______ ______.visceral pleuraThe ease with which the lungs can be expanded during breathing is called ______.comlianceThe respiratory areas are in the medulla oblongata and the ____ of the brainstemponsIn a mixture of gases, each gas creates a pressure called its ______ ______.partial pressureThe cells of an alveolus that secrete surfactant are type __.2When carbon dioxide bonds to hemoglobin, the compound ______ formscarbaminohemoglobin. The amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin ______ as the concentration of carbon dioxide increasesincreases