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Animal science 4.02
Terms in this set (48)
The Untied States Department of Agriculture sets forth quality features for beef, pork and poultry.
The quality features are classified into grades as determined by the USDA.
Grades indicate quality NOT sanitation
Beef quality grades
Beef Cattle Classes
Less than one year of age
One year or older
Less than three months old
3 months to one year old
6 months to one year
Male castrated before sexual maturity
Has not had a calf or matured
Male castrated after sexual maturity
Feeder cattle grade
Slaughter cattle grades
Both quality and yield grades
USDA Feeder Steer & Heifer Grades
USDA NO. 1
USDA No. 2.
Each USDA grade also has a large, medium and small frame category
Slaughter Cattle Grades
Yield Grade 1
Yield Grade 2
Yield Grade 3
Yield Grade 4
Yield Grade 5
Feeder Steer & Heifer Grades
Animals are divided into three groups- calves, yearlings and older feeders based on their age and weight.
Feeder animals weigh between 350 to 1,000lbs
Feeder cattle grades are the basis for reporting market prices for cattle.
Factors Used to Determine Grade
Thriftiness- the apparent health of the animal and its potential to fatten and grow normally
the size of the animal's skeleton (height & body length).
Large- tall and long bodied for their age
Medium- slightly large in size for their age
Small- shorter bodied and not as tall as medium from cattle
development of muscle in relation the size of the skeleton.
US No. 1- slightly thick throughout, moderate with width between legs
US No. 2- narrow throughout, legs set close together back and loin have sunken appearance
US No. 3- less thickness and width between legs than No.2
Feeder Cattle Grade Examples
Large Frame No. 1- animal that is taller in size compared to others and displays thick muscling throughout body.
Medium Frame No. 2- same frame size as No. 2, but less muscling as compared to No. 1. Loin and back have a sunken appearance.
Small frame No. 3 - same frame size as No. 2, but less thickness and width than No. 2
Inferiors - feeder cattle that are unthrifty and not expected to grow or fatten normally. Usually indicative of disease, parasites, etc
Determined by the class or kind of animal (steer, heifer, cow, bull), age or maturity, firmness and marbling of the carcass.
Standard and Commercial
Utility, Cutter, and Canner
Products from young, well-fee beef cattle. It has abundant marbling and is generally sold in restaurants and hotels
High quality, but has less marbling than prime
Frey uniform in quality and normally leaner than the higher grades
Fairly tender, but, because it has less marbling, it may lack some of the juiciness and flavor of the higher grades
Standard and Commercial grades
Frequently are sold as non-graded or as "store brand" meat
Utility, Cutter, and Canner grades
Are seldom, if ever sold at retail but are used instead to make ground meet and processed products
There is no prime grade for slaughter cows
Prime grades have maximum marbling
Low choices or higher grades are the most desirable
About 80% of grain fed beef is graded as choice
A - 9 to 30 Months
B - 30 to 42 months
C - 42 to 72 Months
D - 72 to 96 months
E - More Than 96 Months
The term 'cutability' describes the proportion of an animal which is saleable meat
Percentage of the live animals which form its carcass
Saleable meat yield or retail yield
Percentage of the carcass which is saleable meat.
No two animals are the same
Cut ability varies widely between individual animals
This variation affects financial returns to producers, wholesalers and retailers.
Convex shoulders and hindquarters
Wide over the shoulders
Animals with low cutability do not look muscular, indicating a low ratio of muscle to bone.
a narrow stance, especially through the lower hindquarters;
A prominent gut that is the widest point of the animal when it is viewed from behind
flat forearms and shoulders;
Narrow, poorly developed loins sloping down the backbone
Animals that are overfat and have an uneven distribution of fat have
lumpy deposits of fat in the brisket flank and tailhead
A smooth appearance
a level underline;
A deep body
flatness over the top of the rump;
a smooth tail setting;
A soft, spongy feel
Yield Grades (Beef)
Percentage of the carcass that is boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts from the round, loin rib, and chuck
Numbered 1 to 5
Best muscling with least amount of fat
Worst grade with the less muscle and more fat waste
The terms "yield" and "yield grade" should not be confused
"Yield" alone means dressing percentage (carcass weight divided by live weight multiplied by 100), and is not directly related to yield grades or cut ability
Adjusted fat thickness- external fat is measured at the 12th rib
Percentage of Kidney, Pelvic and Heart Fat (KPH)- a subjective estimate of fat
Intermingling of fat with muscle fibers
Observed in the ribeye muscle between the 12th and 13th rib
Adequate marbling must be present for tenderness and high quality grades
The fat should not be soft and oily.
Swine Quality grades
To be killed and sold as meat
To be feed to heavier weights before slaughter
Male castrated before sexual maturity
Young female that had not had pigs
Feeder pig grade
USDA No. 1 Feeder Pig - large frame, thick muscle, legs set apart and ham is wider than loin.
USDA No. 3 Feeder Pig - Slightly smaller than frame with think muscling. Ham and Loin are about the same width. Back is flat.
USDA utility feeder pig - Unthrifty, diseased, poor care, skin wrinkles, head appears larger than body
Quality grade is determined by quality of lean meat and yield.
Quality of lean is determined by firmness of lean. Firmness of fat, and distribution of external finish (fat)
Yield is evaluated by thickness of backfat and degree of muscling.
Thick muscling helps offset backfat thickness
Us No. 1 hog must have at least average muscling
US No. 1 Shoulf yield 60.4% or higher
Grade is determined by the percent of carcass weight made up of ham, loin, boston butt, and picnic shoulder
Backfat and degree of muscling are used to evaluate live hogs for yield.
Slaughter barrow and gilts
U.S. No. 1
US No. 2
U.S. No. 3
US. No 4
The estimated backfat thickness over the last rib and the muscling score are used to determine the USDA slaughter barrow and gilt grade.
Degrees of Muscling are Thick, Average, Thin
Thick muscle =3.0
Average Muscle Score = 2.0
Thin muscle score = 1.0
The formula used to calculate slaughter barrow and gilt grades is:
Grade = (4.0 x backfat) - ( 1.0 x muscling score)
Poultry Carcass Evaluation
Why Grade Poultry Carcasses?
To insure quality before it is sold
Prevent the selling of an unwholesome product
Grading Poultry Carcasses
USDA Grades indicate quality not sanitation
Ready-to-cook means that certain parts have been removed
Feet and feathers
viscera (soft internal organs)
What are the Grades?
Poultry Carcass Grades:
Sold in stores
Often not a grade sold in store
Usually used for processing into other food products
Disjointed and broken bone
Other Evaluation Factors
normal breastbone, back, leg and wings
Well fleshed or muscled is ideal
Well covered is ideal
(2 pound to 6 pound birds)
Breast and leg cannot have over 1/4 inch
Other parts can have a maximum of 1 and 1/2 inches
No more than 1/3 of the total flesh of each particular part can be exposed
Meat yield cannot be affected (i.e. no cuts into the meat)
Disjointed and broken bones
2 pound to 6 pound birds)
1 disjointed and no broken
2 disjointed and no broken or 1 disjointed and 1 broken non-protruding
Protruding bones automatic grade c
pound to 6 pound birds)
Wing tips and tail (removal of the preen gland)
Wing tips to the 2nd wing joint
Back area not wider than base of tail and extending half way between the base of tail and hip joints
Wing tips, wing and tail.
Back area not wider than the base of tail extending to area between the hip joints
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