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978 terms

Sat Newspaper

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abhor
verb [ with obj. ] formal
regard with disgust and hatred: professional tax preparers _______ a flat tax because it would dry up their business.
to hate
bigot
noun
a person who is having or revealing an obstinate belief in the superiority of one's own opinions and a prejudiced intolerance of the opinions of others,
a prejudiced person who is intolerant of any opinions differing from his own
counterfeit
adjective
made in exact imitation of something valuable or important with the intention to deceive or defraud: two men were remanded on bail on a charge of passing ___________ $10 bills.
• pretended; sham: a _________ image of reality.
noun
a fraudulent imitation of something else; a forgery: he knew the tapes to be ________.
verb [ with obj. ]
imitate fraudulently: my signature is extremely hard to ___________.
• pretend to feel or possess (an emotion or quality): no pretense could have _________ such terror.
• literary resemble closely: sleep ___________ Death so well.
enfranchise
verb [ with obj. ]
give the right to vote to: a proposal that foreigners should be ___________ for local elections.
• historical free (a slave)., grant voting rights
hamper
noun
a large basket with a lid used for laundry: a laundry ________.
• a basket with a carrying handle and a hinged lid, used for food, cutlery, and plates on a picnic: a picnic __________.

verb [ with obj. ]
hinder or impede the movement or progress of: their work is ________ by lack of funds., a basket usually with a cover
kindle
verb [ with obj. ]
light or set on fire.
• inspire (an emotion or feeling): a love of art was _______ in me.
• [ no obj. ] (of an emotion) be arose: she hesitated, suspicion ________ within her.
• [ no obj. ] become excited: the young man _______ at once., cause to start burning
noxious
adjective
harmful, poisonous, or very unpleasant: they were overcome by the ________ fumes., harmful; poisonous; lethal
placid
adjective
(of a person or animal) not easily upset or excited: this horse has a _______ nature.
• (esp. of a place or stretch of water) calm and peaceful, with little movement or activity: the _______waters of a small lake., calm, peaceful
remuneration
noun
money paid for work or a service., payment for work done
talisman
noun ( pl.__________ )
an object, typically an inscribed ring or stone, that is thought to have magic powers and to bring good luck., a trinket or piece of jewelry thought to be a protection against evil
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abrasive
adjective
1 (of a substance or material) capable of polishing or cleaning a hard surface by rubbing or grinding.
• tending to rub or graze the skin: the trees were ________to the touch.
2 (of a person or manner) showing little concern for the feelings of others; harsh: her _________ and arrogant personal style won her few friends.
noun
a substance used for grinding, polishing, or cleaning a hard surface., a substance that abrades or wears down
bilk
verb [ with obj. ]
1 obtain or withhold money from (someone) by deceit or without justification; cheat or defraud: government waste has ______ the taxpayer of billions of dollars.
• obtain (money) fraudulently: some businesses ____thousands of dollars from unsuspecting elderly consumers.
2 archaic evade; elude: I ducked into the pantry, ______ Edward for the third time this week., hinder or prevent (the efforts, plans, or desires) of
covert
adjective |ˈkōvərt, kōˈvərt, ˈkəvərt|
1 not openly acknowledged or displayed: _______operations against the dictatorship.
2 Law (of a woman) married and under the authority and protection of her husband.
noun
1 a thicket in which game can hide.
2 Ornithology any of the feathers covering the bases of the main flight or tail feathers of a bird., a covering that serves to conceal or shelter something
engender
verb [ with obj. ]
cause or give rise to (a feeling, situation, or condition): the issue _______ continuing controversy.
• archaic (of a father) beget (offspring)., make children
hangar
noun
a large building with extensive floor area, typically for housing aircraft., a large structure at an airport where aircraft can be stored and maintained
knotty
adjective ( knottier , knottiest )
full of knots: the room was paneled in _____ pine.
• (of a problem or matter) extremely difficult or intricate.
nuance
noun
a subtle difference in or shade of meaning, expression, or sound: the ______ of facial expression and body language.
verb [ with obj. ] (usu. be nuanced)
give _______ to: the effect of the music is nuanced by the social situation of listeners.
plagiarism
noun
the practice of taking someone else's work or ideas and passing them off as one's own.
renown
noun
the condition of being known or talked about by many people; fame: authors of great _______.
tangent
noun
1 a straight line or plane that touches a curve or curved surface at a point, but if extended does not cross it at that point.
2 a completely different line of thought or action: he quickly went off on a _______ about wrestling.
3 Mathematics the trigonometric function that is equal to the ratio of the sides (other than the hypotenuse) opposite and adjacent to an angle in a right triangle.
adjective
(of a line or plane) touching, but not intersecting, a curve or curved surface.
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abasement
noun
humiliation or degradation.
billowing
noun
a large undulating mass of something, typically cloud, smoke, or steam.
• archaic a large sea wave.
verb [ no obj. ]
(of fabric) fill with air and swell outward: her dress _______ out around her.
• (of smoke, cloud, or steam) move or flow outward with an undulating motion: smoke was ________ from the chimney.
cower
verb [ no obj. ]
crouch down in fear: children _______ in terror as the shoot-out erupted.
enhance
verb [ with obj. ]
intensify, increase, or further improve the quality, value, or extent of: his refusal does nothing to _____ his reputation | computer techniques that ______ images.
harangue
noun
a lengthy and aggressive speech.
verb [ with obj. ]
lecture (someone) at length in an aggressive and critical manner: the kind of guy who _______ total strangers about PCB levels in whitefish.
labyrinth
noun
1 a complicated irregular network of passages or paths in which it is difficult to find one's way; a maze
a ________ of passages and secret chambers.
• an intricate and confusing arrangement: a _______ of conflicting laws and regulations.
2 Anatomy a complex structure in the inner ear that contains the organs of hearing and balance. It consists of bony cavities (the bony ______) filled with fluid and lined with sensitive membranes (the membranous _______).
• Zoology an organ of intricate structure, in particular the accessory respiratory organs of certain fishes.
nullify
verb [ with obj. ]
make legally ____ and void; invalidate: judges were unwilling to _______ government decisions.______ the effects of training.
plaintiff
noun Law
a person who brings a case against another in a court of law. Compare with defendant.
replete
adjective [ predic. ]
filled or well-supplied with something: sensational popular fiction, _____ with adultery and sudden death.
• very full of or sated by food: I went out into the sun-drenched streets again, _____ and relaxed.
tangible
adjective
perceptible by touch: the atmosphere of neglect and abandonment was almost ______ .
• clear and definite; real: the emphasis is now on tangible results.
noun (usu. _______s)
a thing that is perceptible by touch.
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abrogate
verb [ with obj. ] formal
repeal or do away with (a law, right, or formal agreement): a proposal to ________ temporarily the right to strike.
blasphemy
noun ( pl. blasphemies )
the act or offense of speaking sacrilegiously about God or sacred things; profane talk: he was detained on charges of _______ | screaming incomprehensible _____.
credible
adjective
able to be believed; convincing: few people found his story _______ | a credible witness.
• capable of persuading people that something will happen or be successful: a _______ threat.
enigma
noun ( pl. _______ )
a person or thing that is mysterious, puzzling, or difficult to understand.
harbingers
noun
a person or thing that announces or signals the approach of another: witch hazels are the _____ of spring.
• a forerunner of something: these works were not yet opera, but they were the most important _____ of opera.
labyrinthine
adjective
(of a network) like a labyrinth; irregular and twisting: ____ streets and alleys.
• (of a system) intricate and confusing:_______ plots and counterplots.
nuzzle
verb [ with obj. ]
rub or push against gently with the nose and mouth: he ________ her hair | [ no obj. ] : the foal ______ at its mother.
• [ no obj. ] (______ up to/against) lean or snuggle against: the dog _____ up against me.
plaudit
pluralnoun
praise: the network has received plaudits for its sports coverage.
• the applause of an audience: the plaudits for the winner died down.
reprehensible
adjective
deserving censure or condemnation: his complacency and reprehensible laxity.
tardy
adjective ( tardier , tardiest )
delaying or delayed beyond the right or expected time; late: please forgive this tardy reply.
• slow in action or response; sluggish.
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absolution
noun
formal release from guilt, obligation, or punishment.
• an ecclesiastical declaration of forgiveness of sins
blatant
adjective
(of bad behavior) done openly and unashamedly: _______ lies.
• completely lacking in subtlety; very obvious:
creditable
adjective
(of a performance, effort, or action) deserving public acknowledgment and praise but not necessarily outstanding or successful
ensconce
verb [ with obj. ]
establish or settle (someone) in a comfortable, safe, or secret place:
hasten
verb [ no obj., with infinitive ]
be quick to do something
-[ with adverbial of direction ] move or travel hurriedly
-[ with obj. ] cause (something) to happen sooner than it otherwise would
laceration
noun
a deep cut or tear, esp. in skin; a gash
• the action of making such a cut.
obdurate
adjective
stubbornly refusing to change one's opinion or course of action.
plausible
adjective
-(of an argument or statement) seeming reasonable or probable:
-(of a person) skilled at producing persuasive arguments, esp. ones intended to deceive
reprieve
verb [ with obj. ]
cancel or postpone the punishment of (someone, esp. someone condemned to death)
• abandon or postpone plans to close or put an end to (something)
noun
a cancellation or postponement of a punishment.
• a temporary escape from an undesirable fate or unpleasant situation
tawdry
adjective
showy but cheap and of poor quality
sordid or unpleasant
noun archaic
cheap and gaudy finery.
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abstain
verb [ no obj. ]
1 restrain oneself from doing or enjoying something
2 formally decline to vote either for or against a proposal or motion
blighted
noun
a plant disease, esp. one caused by fungi such as mildews, rusts, and smuts
• [ in sing. ] a thing that spoils or damages something
• an ugly, neglected, or rundown condition of an urban area

verb [ with obj. ]
infect (plants or a planted area) with blight
• spoil, harm, or destroy
• to neglect
credulous
adjective
having or showing too great a readiness to believe things.
enshroud
verb [ with obj. ] literary
envelop completely and hide from view
haughtiness
noun
the appearance or quality of being arrogantly superior and disdainful
lachrymose
adjective formal or literary
-tearful or given to weeping
• inducing tears; sad
obfuscate
verb [ with obj. ]
render obscure, unclear, or unintelligible
• bewilder (someone)
plethora
noun
1. a large or excessive amount of (something)
2 Medicine an excess of a bodily fluid, particularly blood.
repudiate
verb [ with obj. ]
refuse to accept or be associated with
• deny the truth or validity of
• chiefly Law refuse to fulfill or discharge (an agreement, obligation, or debt)
• (esp. in the past or in non-Christian religions) divorce (one's wife)
tedium
noun
the state of being too long, slow, or dull: tiresome or monotonous
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abstemious
adjective
not self-indulgent, esp. when eating and drinking
blithe
adjective
showing a casual and cheerful indifference considered to be callous or improper
• happy or joyous
crepuscular
adjective
of, resembling, or relating to twilight.
• Zoology (of an animal) appearing or active in twilight.
enunciation
verb [ with obj. ]
say or pronounce clearly
• proclaim
headstrong
adjective
self-willed and obstinate
lackluster
adjective
lacking in vitality, force, or conviction; uninspired or uninspiring
• (of the hair or the eyes) not shining; dull.
objective
adjective
1 (of a person or their judgment) not influenced by personal feelings or opinions in considering and representing facts:
• not dependent on the mind for existence; actual
2 [ attrib. ] Grammar of, relating to, or denoting a case of nouns and pronouns used as the object of a transitive verb or a preposition.

noun
1 a thing aimed at or sought; a goal
2the lens in a telescope or microscope nearest to the object observed.
pliable
adjective
1 easily bent; flexible
2 easily influenced
rescind
verb [ with obj. ]
revoke, cancel, or repeal (a law, order, or agreement)
temper
noun
1 [ in sing. ] a person's state of mind seen in terms of their being angry or calm
• a tendency to become angry easily
• an angry state of mind
2 the degree of hardness and elasticity in steel or other metal:
verb [ with obj. ]
1 improve the hardness and elasticity of (steel or other metal) by reheating and then cooling it.
• improve the consistency or resiliency of (a substance) by heating it or adding particular substances to it.
2 (often be tempered with) serve as a neutralizing or counterbalancing force to (something)
3 tune (a piano or other instrument) so as to adjust the note intervals correctly.
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abstruse
adjective
difficult to understand; obscure
blunderbuss
noun
1 historical a short-barreled large-bored gun with a flared muzzle, used at short range.
blunderbuss
2 an action or way of doing something regarded as lacking in subtlety and precision
cringe
verb
bend one's head and body in fear or in a servile manner
• experience an inward shiver of embarrassment or disgust
noun
an act of _________
envenom
verb [ with obj. ] archaic
put poison on or into; make poisonous.
hedonism
noun
the pursuit of pleasure; sensual self-indulgence.
• the ethical theory that pleasure (in the sense of the satisfaction of desires) is the highest good and proper aim of human life.
laconic
adjective
(of a person, speech, or style of writing) using very few words
oblique
adjective
1 neither parallel nor at a right angle to a specified or implied line; slanting
• not explicit or direct in addressing a point
• Geometry (of a line, plane figure, or surface) inclined at other than a right angle.
• Geometry (of an angle) acute or obtuse.
• Geometry (of a cone, cylinder, etc.) with an axis not perpendicular to the plane of its base.
• Anatomy (esp. of a muscle) neither parallel nor perpendicular to the long axis of a body or limb.
2 Grammar denoting any case other than the nominative or vocative.
noun
1 a muscle neither parallel nor perpendicular to the long axis of a body or limb.
2 Brit. another term for slash1 ( sense 2 of the noun).
plumage
noun
a bird's feathers collectively.
resignation
noun
1 an act of retiring or giving up a position
• a document conveying someone's intention of retiring
• Chess an act of ending a game by conceding defeat without being checkmated.
2 the acceptance of something undesirable but inevitable
tenacious
adjective
tending to keep a firm hold of something; clinging or adhering closely
• not readily relinquishing a position, principle, or course of action; determined

• persisting in existence; not easily dispelled
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accolade
noun
1 an award or privilege granted as a special honor or as an acknowledgment of merit
• an expression of praise or admiration.
2 a touch on a person's shoulders with a sword at the bestowing of a knighthood.
bolster
noun

a long, thick pillow that is placed under other pillows for support.
• a part of a vehicle or tool providing structural support.
• Building a short timber cap over a post designed to increase the bearing of the beams it supports.

verb [ with obj. ]
support or strengthen; prop up
• provide (a seat) with padded support
cryptic
adjective
1 having a meaning that is mysterious or obscure
• (of a crossword) having difficult clues that indicate the solutions indirectly.
2 Zoology (of coloration or markings) serving to camouflage an animal in its natural environment.
ephemeral
adjective
lasting for a very short time: fashions are ephemeral.
• (chiefly of plants) having a very short life cycle.
noun
an ephemeral plant.
hedonist
noun
a person who believes that the pursuit of pleasure is the most important thing in life; a pleasure-seeker
lamentation
noun
the passionate expression of grief or sorrow; weeping
obliterate
verb [ with obj. ]
destroy utterly; wipe out: figurative : the memory was so painful that he ______it from his mind.
• cause to become invisible or indistinct; blot out: clouds were darkening, _____ the sun.
plummet
verb[ no obj. ]
fall or drop straight down at high speed: a climber was killed when he _____ 300 feet down an icy gully.
• decrease rapidly in value or amount: hardware sales _______.
noun
1 a steep and rapid fall or drop.
2 a plumb or plumb line.
resolution
noun
1 a firm decision to do or not to do something
• a formal expression of opinion or intention agreed on by a legislative body, committee, or other formal meeting, typically after taking a vote
• the quality of being determined or resolute

2 the action of solving a problem, dispute, or contentious matter: the peaceful resolution of all disputes
• Music the passing of a discord into a concord during the course of changing harmony.
• Medicine the disappearance of inflammation, or of any other symptom or condition.

3 chiefly Chemistry the process of reducing or separating something into its components.
• Physics the replacing of a single force or other vector quantity by two or more jointly equivalent to it.
• the conversion of something abstract into another form.
• Prosody the substitution of two short syllables for one long one.

4 the smallest interval measurable by a scientific (esp. optical) instrument; the resolving power.
• the degree of detail visible in a photographic or television image.
tentative
adjective
not certain or fixed; provisional
• done without confidence; hesitant
acquiesce
verb [ no obj. ]
accept something reluctantly but without protest
bombast
noun
high-sounding language with little meaning, used to impress people.
curtail
verb [ with obj. ]
reduce in extent or quantity; impose a restriction on
deprive someone of (something)
epicure
noun
a person who takes particular pleasure in fine food and drink.
heed
verb [ with obj. ]
pay attention to; take notice of
noun
careful attention
lampoon
verb [ with obj. ]
publicly criticize (someone or something) by using ridicule, irony, or sarcasm
noun
a speech or text criticizing someone or something in this way
oblivious
adjective
not aware of or not concerned about what is happening around one
podium
noun
a small platform on which a person may stand to be seen by an audience, as when making a speech or conducting an orchestra.
• a lectern.
• a continuous projecting base or pedestal under a building.
• a raised platform surrounding the arena in an ancient amphitheater.

verb [ no obj. ]
(of a competitor) finish first, second, or third, so as to appear on a _____ for an award
resonant
adjective
1 (of sound) deep, clear, and continuing to sound or ring
(of a place) filled or resounding with
• having the ability to evoke or suggest enduring images, memories, or emotions

2 (of a room, a musical instrument, or a hollow body) tending to reinforce or prolong sounds, esp. by synchronous vibration.
3 technical of, relating to, or bringing about resonance in a circuit, atom, or other object.
4 (of a color) enhancing or enriching another color or colors by contrast.
tenuous
adjective
very weak or slight: the ____ link between interest rates and investment.
• very slender or fine; insubstantial: a ______ cloud.
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acrid
adjective
having an irritatingly strong and unpleasant taste or smell
• angry and bitter:
boorish
adjective
rough and bad-mannered; coarse
cynical
adjective
1 believing that people are motivated by self-interest; distrustful of human sincerity or integrity
• doubtful as to whether something will happen or whether it is worthwhile: most residents are cynical about efforts to clean mobsters out of their city.
• contemptuous; mocking: he gave a cynical laugh.
2 concerned only with one's own interests and typically disregarding accepted or appropriate standards in order to achieve them: a cynical manipulation of public opinion.
epistle
especially a long, formal letter
noun formal
a letter.
• a poem or other literary work in the form of a letter or series of letters.
• (also Epistle )a book of the New Testament in the form of a letter from an Apostle: St. Paul's epistle to the Romans.
• an extract from an Epistle (or another New Testament book not a Gospel) that is read in a church service.
heresy
noun ( pl. heresies )
belief or opinion contrary to orthodox religious (esp. Christian) doctrine: Huss was burned for heresy | the doctrine was denounced as a heresy by the pope.
• opinion profoundly at odds with what is generally accepted: cutting capital gains taxes is heresy | the politician's heresies became the conventional wisdom of the day.
lance
noun
1 a long weapon for thrusting, having a wooden shaft and a pointed steel head, formerly used by a horseman in charging.
• a weapon resembling a lance used in hunting fish or whales.
• another term for lancer ( sense 1).
2 [ usu. with modifier ] a metal pipe supplying a jet of oxygen to a furnace or to a hot flame for cutting.
3 a rigid tube at the end of a hose for pumping or spraying liquid.
verb [ with obj. ] Medicine
prick or cut open with a lancet or other sharp instrument: abscesses should not be lanced until there is a soft spot in the center | figurative : the governor made it one of his priorities to lance the boil of corruption.
• pierce with or as if with a lance: the teenager had been lanced by a wooden splinter | [ no obj. ] figurative : his eyes lanced right through her.
• [ no obj. ] move suddenly and quickly: pain lanced through her.
• literary fling; launch: he affirms to have lanced darts at the sun.
obscure
adjective ( obscurer , obscurest )
not discovered or known about; uncertain: his origins and parentage are obscure.
• not clearly expressed or easily understood: obscure references to Proust.
• not important or well known: an obscure religious sect.
• hard to make out or define; vague: figurative : I feel an obscure resentment.
• (of a color) not sharply defined; dim or dingy.
verb [ with obj. ]
keep from being seen; conceal: gray clouds obscure the sun.
• make unclear and difficult to understand: the debate has become obscured by conflicting ideological perspectives.
• overshadow: none of this should obscure the skill, experience, and perseverance of the workers.
poignant
adjective
evoking a keen sense of sadness or regret: a poignant reminder of the passing of time.
• archaic sharp or pungent in taste or smell.
respite
noun
a short period of rest or relief from something difficult or unpleasant: the refugee encampments will provide some respite from the suffering | [ in sing. ] : a brief respite from a dire food shortage.
• a short delay permitted before an unpleasant obligation is met or a punishment is carried out.
verb [ with obj. ] rare
postpone (a sentence, obligation, etc.): the execution was only respited a few months.
• archaic grant a delay or extension of time to; reprieve from death or execution: some poor criminal ... from the gibbet or the wheel, respited for a day.
terse
adjective ( terser , tersest )
sparing in the use of words; abrupt: a terse statement.
acrophobia
a morbid fear of great heights noun
bourgeois
middle class noun
debility
the state of being weak in health or body (especially from old age) noun
epistolary
written in the form of or carried on by letters or correspondence adj
hiatus
a missing piece (as a gap in a manuscript) noun
languid
lacking spirit or liveliness adj
obscured
hidden, covered, buried verb
poised
in full control of your faculties adj
resplendent
having great beauty and splendor adj
therapeutic
relating to or involved in therapy adj
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acuity
a quick and penetrating intelligence noun
braggart
a very boastful and talkative person noun
debunking
the exposure of falseness or pretensions noun
epitomized
typified; characterized; personified verb
hidebound
stubbornly conservative and narrow-minded adj.
languish
become feeble verb
obsequious
attentive in an ingratiating or servile manner adj.
polemical
of or involving dispute or controversy adj.
restorative
adjective /riˈstôrətiv/

Having the ability to restore health, strength, or a feeling of well-being
- the restorative power of long walks

Relating to or concerned with the restoration of form or function to a damaged tooth or other part of the body

noun /riˈstôrətiv/
restoratives, plural

Something, esp. a medicine or drink, that restores health, strength, or well-being
thwart
verb /THwôrt/
thwarted, past participle; thwarted, past tense; thwarting, present participle; thwarts, 3rd person singular present

Prevent (someone) from accomplishing something
- he never did anything to thwart his father
- he was thwarted in his desire to punish Uncle Fred

Oppose (a plan, attempt, or ambition) successfully
- the government had been able to thwart all attempts by opposition leaders to form new parties

noun /THwôrt/
thwarts, plural

A structural crosspiece sometimes forming a seat for a rower in a boat

adverb /THwôrt/

From one side to another side of; across
- a pink-tinged cloud spread thwart the shore
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adamant
adjective /ˈadəmənt/

Refusing to be persuaded or to change one's mind
- he is adamant that he is not going to resign

noun /ˈadəmənt/

A legendary rock or mineral to which many, often contradictory, properties were attributed, formerly associated with diamond or lodestone
brawny
(of a person) possessing physical strength and weight
adj
decathlon
an athletic contest consisting of ten different events noun
equivocate
be deliberately ambiguous or unclear in order to mislead or withhold information verb
hieroglyphics
an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds noun
larceny
the act of taking something from someone unlawfully
noun
obsession
an unhealthy and compulsive preoccupation with something or someone noun
ponderous
having great mass and weight and unwieldiness adj
retention
the act of keeping in your possession noun
timorous
timid by nature or revealing timidity adj
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adroit
skillful (or showing skill) in adapting means to ends adj
brevity
the attribute of being brief or fleeting noun
decorum
propriety in manners and conduct noun
err
to make a mistake or be incorrect verb
hinder
put at a disadvantage verb
largess
liberality in bestowing gifts noun
obsolete
no longer in use adj
pontificate
the government of the Roman Catholic Church, talk in a dogmatic and pompous manner noun
reticent
reluctant to draw attention to yourself adj.
tirade
a speech of violent denunciation noun
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adulation
Praise or flattery that is excessive noun
bristle
a stiff hair noun
decoy
noun
A bird or mammal, or an imitation of one, used by hunters to attract other birds or mammals
A person or thing used to lure an animal or person into a trap
A fake or nonworking article, esp. a weapon, used to mislead or misdirect
A pond from which narrow netted channels lead, into which wild ducks may be enticed for capture
verb
Lure or entice (a person or animal) away from an intended course, typically into a trap
erratic
liable to sudden unpredictable change adj.
histrionic
characteristic of acting or a stage performance adj
laud
praise, glorify, or honor verb
obstreperous
boisterously and noisily aggressive adj
portend
indicate by signs verb
retraction
the act of pulling or holding or drawing a part back noun
titter
Give a short, half-suppressed laugh; giggle verb
A short, half-suppressed laugh noun
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adversity
a state of misfortune or affliction noun
broach
(v.) to bring up or begin to talk about (a subject); to announce, introduce; to break the surface of the water; to pierce; (n.) a spit for roasting; a tool for tapping casks
deference
a disposition or tendency to yield to the will of others
esoteric
confined to and understandable by only an enlightened inner circle adj
hoary
covered with fine whitish hairs or down adj
lavish
very generous adj
obtuse
slow to learn or understand adj
portent
a sign of something about to happen noun
revere
regard with feelings of respect and reverence verb
tome
a (usually) large and scholarly book noun
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advocate
a person who pleads for a cause or propounds an idea noun
brusque
marked by rude or peremptory shortness adj
defoliate
strip the leaves or branches from verb
espouse
take up the cause, ideology, practice, method, of someone and use it as one's own verb
hone
make perfect or complete verb
lax
emptying easily or excessively adj, relax
obviate
prevent the occurrence of verb
poseur
a person who habitually pretends to be something he is not noun
riddled
(often followed by 'with') damaged throughout by numerous perforations or holes adj
torpid
slow and apathetic adj
2-9
...
aesthetic
(philosophy) a philosophical theory as to what is beautiful noun
bulwark
a protective structure of stone or concrete noun
defunct
having ceased to exist or live adj
etymology
the study of the sources and development of words noun
hyperbole
extravagant exaggeration noun
legend
a story about mythical or supernatural beings or events noun
odious
unequivocally detestable adj
posterity
all future generations noun
rife
excessively abundant adj
torpor
inactivity resulting from torpidity and lack of vigor or energy noun
2-10
...
affable
diffusing warmth and friendliness adj
bureaucracy
nonelective government officials noun
degradation
changing to a lower state (a less respected state) noun
eulogy
a formal expression of praise noun
hypochondriac
a patient with imaginary symptoms and ailments noun
legion
a large military unit noun
officious
intrusive in a meddling or offensive manner adj
posthumous
occurring or coming into existence after a person's death adj
rigor
excessive sternness noun
totter
move unsteadily, with a rocking motion verb
3-1
...
alacrity
liveliness and eagerness noun
burgeon
grow and flourish verb
deleterious
harmful to living things adj
euphemism
an inoffensive expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive noun
hypocritical
professing feelings or virtues one does not have adj
lethargic
deficient in alertness or activity adj
ogle
look at with amorous intentions verb
postulate
maintain or assert verb
robust
rough and crude adj
3-2
...
alchemy
a pseudoscientific forerunner of chemistry in medieval times noun
burnish
the property of being smooth and shiny noun, polish and make shiny -verb
deliberate
with care and dignity adj., think about carefully -verb
euphony
any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds noun
iconoclast
someone who tries to destroy traditional ideas or institutions- noun
levity
lightness of manner noun
olfactory
of or relating to olfaction (Of or relating to the sense of smell) adj
potable
any liquid suitable for drinking noun
rotund
excessively fat adj
tranquil
free from disturbance adj, lax, or relax, peaceful
3-3
...
alibi
(law) a defense by an accused person purporting to show that he or she could not have committed the crime in question noun
buttress
a support usually of stone or brick; supports the wall of a building- noun
make stronger or defensible- verb
delineation
representation by drawing or painting etc - noun
euphony
any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds noun
idiosyncrasy
a behavioral attribute that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual - noun
libertarian
someone who believes the doctrine of free will - noun
ominous
threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments- adj
potent
having a strong physiological or chemical effect-adj
ruminate
reflect deeply on a subject- verb
transcribe
convert the genetic information in (a strand of DNA) into a strand of RNA, especially messenger RNA-verb
3-4
...
allay
lessen the intensity of or calm- verb
byline
the line that tells you who wrote an article- noun
demur
take exception to- verb
exacerbate
make worse-verb
ignominious
(used of conduct or character) deserving or bringing disgrace or shame-adj
liniment
a medicinal liquid that is rubbed into the skin to relieve muscular stiffness and pain- noun
omnipotent
having unlimited power-adj
god- noun
pragmatic
concerned with practical matters-adj
ruse
a deceptive maneuver (especially to avoid capture)- noun
transgress
act in disregard of laws and rules- noun
3-5
...
alleviate
provide physical relief, as from pain-verb
cacophony
loud confusing disagreeable sounds- noun
denounce
speak out against-verb
exasperated
greatly annoyed-adj
ignominy
a state of dishonor- noun
lithe
gracefully slender-adj
omniscient
infinitely wise-adj
pragmatist
a person who takes a practical approach to problems and is concerned primarily with the success or failure of her actions-noun
saccharin
a crystalline substance 500 times sweeter than sugar- noun
transient
enduring a very short time-adj
3-6
...
aloof
remote in manner adj
cajole
influence or urge by gentle urging, caressing, or flattering- verb
deplete
use up (resources or materials)-verb
exceptionable
liable to objection or debate-adj
illuminate
make lighter or brighter-verb
livid
furiously angry-adj
onerous
not easily borne-adj
preamble
beginning, or introduction- noun
to say an introduction -verb
sacrosanct
must be kept sacred-adj
traverse
Verb:
Travel across or through
Noun:
An act of traveling across something.
Adjective:
(of a curtain rod) Allowing the curtain to be opened and closed by sliding it along the rod.
3-7
...
altruism
the quality of unselfish concern for the welfare of others- noun
caldron
a very large pot that is used for boiling- noun
deplore
express strong disapproval of-verb
exculpate
pronounce not guilty of criminal charges-verb
illusory
based on or having the nature of an illusion-adj
lobbyist
someone who tries to persuade legislators to vote for bills that the lobbyists favor- noun
onus
an onerous or difficult concern- noun
precarious
affording no ease or reassurance-adj
sagacious
acutely insightful and wise-adj
trepidation
a feeling of alarm or dread- noun
3-8
...
amass
collect or gather-verb
callow
lacking experience of life young-adj
depravity
a corrupt or depraved or degenerate act or practice- noun
execrable
deserving a curse-adj
immoderate
not within reasonable limits-adj
lofty
of imposing height-adj
opaque
not clear-adj
precedent
an example that is used to justify similar occurrences at a later time- noun
sage
aromatic fresh or dried gray-green leaves used widely as seasoning for meats and fowl and game etc - noun, a mentor in spiritual and philosophical topics who is renowned for profound wisdom- noun
trinket
something of little value; knick-knack- noun
3-9
...
ambiguity
unclearness by virtue of having more than one meaning- noun
candid
openly straightforward and direct without reserve or secretiveness-adj
deprecate
belittle-verb express disapproval of
exegesis
an explanation or critical interpretation (especially of the Bible)- noun
immutable
not subject or susceptible to change or variation in form or quality or nature-adj
longevity
duration of service noun
opulent
rich and superior in quality-adj
precept
rule of personal conduct- noun
salacious
characterized by lust-adj
trite
repeated too often-adj
3-10
...
ambiguous
having more than one possible meaning-adj
candor
the quality of being honest and straightforward in attitude and speech- noun
deride
treat or speak of with contempt-verb
exemplary
serving to warn-adj
impartial
free from undue bias or preconceived opinions-adj
loquacious
full of trivial conversation-adj
ordain
(v) to establish by law; to order or command; to appoint as a priest or minister; to destine
precinct
a district of a city or town marked out for administrative purposes- noun
sallow
unhealthy looking- adj
Adjective:
(of a person's complexion) Of an unhealthy yellowish color.
Verb:
to be _____
Noun:
A willow tree, esp. one of a low-growing or shrubby kind.
trivial
not large enough to consider or notice-adj
4-1
...
ambivalence
mixed feelings or emotions- noun
cantankerous
stubbornly obstructive and unwilling to cooperate- adj
derogatory
expressive of low opinion-adj
exemplify
clarify by giving an example of-verb
impecunious
not having enough money to pay for necessities-adj
lucid
(of language) transparently clear-adj
ornate
rich in decorative detail-adj
precipice
a very steep cliff- noun
salubrious
promoting health-adj
truant
absent without permission-adj, someone who shirks duty- noun
4-2
...
ambulatory
able to walk about-adj
capacious
large in capacity-adj
desecrate
remove the consecration from a person or an object-verb
exhaustive
very thorough-adj
impious
lacking piety or reverence for a god-adj
ludicrous
broadly or extravagantly humorous-adj
orthodox
adhering to what is commonly accepted-adj
precipitous
extremely steep-adj
salutary
tending to promote physical well-being-adj
truncate
terminating abruptly by having or as if having an end or point cut off-adj
to shorten-verb
4-3
...
ameliorate
get better-verb
capitulate
surrender under agreed conditions-verb
desecration
blasphemous (against god) behavior- noun
exonerates
acquits; absolves; removes blame
Verb
impoverished
poor enough to need help from others-adj
lukewarm
feeling or showing little interest or enthusiasm-adj
, moderately warm- adj
ossify
cause to become hard and bony-verb
preclude
keep from happening or arising-verb
sanctimonious
excessively or hypocritically pious-adj
tumult
the act of making a noisy disturbance- noun
4-4
...
amelioration
the act of relieving ills and changing for the better- noun
carping
difficult to please-adj
to complain often-verb
desist
to stop doing something-verb
exorcism
freeing from evil spirits- noun
impromptu
with little or no preparation or forethought-adj
lummox
an awkward stupid person- noun
ostentatious
intended to attract notice and impress others-adj
precocious
appearing or developing early-adj
sanction
official permission or approval- noun
turpitude
a corrupt or depraved or degenerate act or practice- noun
4-5
...
amiable
adj , diffusing warmth and friendliness
cartographer
a person who makes maps- noun
despondent
without or almost without hope-adj
expatriate
expel from a country-verb
inadvertent
without intention (especially resulting from heedless action)-adj
luscious
-adj, juicy; moist; succulent
oust
remove and replace-verb
predecessor
one who precedes you in time (as in holding a position or office)- noun
sanguinary
marked by eagerness to resort to violence and bloodshed-adj
tyro
(n.) a beginner, novice; one with little or no background or skill
4-6
...
amity
n. Friendship; friendly relations
castigate
inflict severe punishment on- verb
destitution
a state without friends or money or prospects- noun
expedient
(n) a means to an end; (adj) advantageous, useful
incantation
a ritual recitation of words or sounds believed to have a magical effect- noun
lynch
kill without legal sanction- verb
overt
open and observable-adj
predicament
a difficult situation- noun
sanguine
inclined to a healthy reddish color often associated with outdoor life-adj
ubiquitous
being present everywhere at once-adj
4-7
...
amorphous
having no definite form or distinct shape-adj
catharsis
(psychoanalysis) purging of emotional tensions- noun
deter
try to prevent- verb
expedite
process fast and efficiently- verb
incarceration
the state of being imprisoned- noun
machination
a crafty and involved plot to achieve your (usually sinister) ends- noun
overwrought
deeply agitated especially from emotion-adj
preeminent
greatest in importance or degree or significance or achievement-adj
sardonic
disdainfully or ironically humorous-adj
unalloyed
(adj.) pure, of high quality
5-1
...
anecdote
short account of an incident (especially a biographical one)- noun
celerity
a rate that is rapid- noun
dexterous
skillful in physical movements-adj
extraneous
coming from the outside-adj
incoherent
unable to express yourself clearly or fluently-adj
maladroit
not adroit (skilled)-adj
pallid
abnormally deficient in color as suggesting physical or emotional distress-adj
presumptuous
excessively forward-adj
scrupulous
characterized by extreme care and great effort-adj
unequivocal
admitting of no doubt or misunderstanding-adj
5-2
...
animosity
a feeling of ill will arousing active hostility- noun
censorious
harshly critical or expressing censure-adj
dichotomy
being twofold- noun
extrapolate
gain knowledge of (an area not known or experienced) by extrapolating-verb
incongruous
lacking in harmony or compatibility or appropriateness-adj
malady
impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism- noun (illness)
palpable
capable of being touched or felt-adj
pretentious
intended to attract notice and impress others-adj
scrutinize
of accounts and tax returns-verb
unfetter
set free-verb
5-3
...
annex
an addition that extends a main building- noun
attach to-verb
censure
harsh criticism or disapproval- noun, rebuke formally- verb
didactic
instructive (especially excessively)-adj
extrinsic
not forming an essential part of a thing or arising or originating from the outside-adj
inconsequential
lacking worth or importance-adj
malediction
the act of calling down a curse that invokes evil (and usually serves as an insult)- noun
panacea
hypothetical remedy for all ills or diseases- noun
prevaricate
be deliberately ambiguous or unclear in order to mislead or withhold information-verb
scuttle
(v) to sink a ship by cutting holes in it; to get rid of something in a decisive way; to run hastily, scurry; (n) a pail
unfrock
to remove a priest from his position- verb
5-4
...
cerebral
involving intelligence rather than emotions or instinct-adj
diffident
lacking self-confidence-adj
fallacious
based on an incorrect or misleading notion or information-adj
inconspicuous
not prominent or readily noticeable-adj
malefactor
someone who has committed (or been legally convicted of) a crime- noun
paradigm
a standard or typical example- noun
pristine
immaculately clean and unused-adj
seminary
a private place of education for the young- noun
unprecedented
having no precedent-adj
5-5
...
anomaly
deviation (difference) from the normal or common order or form or rule- noun
certitude
total certainty or greater certainty than circumstances warrant- noun
digress
wander from a direct or straight course-verb
falter
(v) to hesitate, stumble, lose courage; to speak hesitatingly; to lose drive, weaken, decline
indelible
(adj) not able to be erased or removed
memorable
syn: lasting, permanent, unforgettable
ant: erasable, impermanent, ephemeral
malinger
(v.) to pretend illness to avoid duty or work, lie down on the job
paradox
(logic) a self-contradiction- noun
proclivity
(n.) a natural or habitual inclination or tendency (especially of human character or behavior)
sensuous
taking delight in beauty-adj
unscathed
wholly unharmed-adj
5-6
...
antagonism
(noun)
hatred or hostility
charlatan
a flamboyant deceiver- noun
dike
a barrier constructed to contain the flow of water or to keep out the sea- noun
, enclose with a dike (a wall)- verb
fanatical
marked by excessive enthusiasm for and intense devotion to a cause or idea-adj
indifferent
showing no care or concern in attitude or action-adj
malingerer
someone shirking their duty by feigning illness or incapacity- noun
paragon
an ideal instance- noun
procrastinate
postpone or delay needlessly
sentinel
a person employed to watch for something to happen- noun
unwitting
not aware or knowing-adj
sentimental
sappy; emotional-adj
5-7
...
antagonistic
hostile, conflicting-adj
chary
(adj.) extremely cautious, hesitant, or slow (to); reserved, diffident
dilatory
(adj) tending to delay or procrastinate, not prompt; intended to delay or postpone
fanaticism
excessive zeal; extreme devotion to a belief or cause; N. fanatic; ADJ. fanatic
indigenous
adj. Naturally living or growing in a certain area; native.
maleable
(adj) flexible; can be shaped
paramount
(adj.) chief in importance, above all others
prodigal
(adj.) wastefully extravagant; lavishly or generously abundant; (n.) one who is wasteful and self-indulgent
sequester
(v.) to set apart, separate for a special purpose; to take possession of and hold in custody
upbraid
(v.) to blame, scold, find fault with
5-8
...
antediluvian
adj. Of or pertaining to the times, things, events before the great flood in the days of Noah.

a very old (or old fashioned) person- noun
chastises
(v.) punishes
dilemma
(n.) a difficult or perplexing situation or problem
fastidious
(adj.) overly demanding or hard to please; excessively careful in regard to details; easily disgusted
indolence
n. laziness
mallet
1. wooden hammer
2. stick used for polo- noun
parasite
(n.) an organism that lives on or in another organism; one who lives off another person
prodigious
(adj.) immense; extraordinary in bulk, size, or degree
serendipity
good luck in making unexpected and fortunate discoveries- noun
urbane
(adj.) refined in manner or style, suave
5-9
...
anthology
n. A collection of extracts from the writings of various authors.
chicanery
(n.) trickery, deceptive practices or tactics, double-dealing
diletante
n. one who merely dabbles in an art or a science - syn: amateur, trifler - ant: expert, professional
fatuous
(adj.) - silly, foolish
inductee
a beginner- noun
manipulatable
influenceable; controllable-adj
parched
dried out by heat or excessive exposure to sunlight-adj
profane
v. violate; desecrate; treat unworthily
(adj.) - indecent, blasphemous
serene
completely clear and fine-adj
upshot
a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon- noun
5-10
...
anthropocentrism
an inclination to evaluate reality exclusively in terms of human values- noun
chimerical
adj. imaginary; fantastic
diligent
hard-working-adj
feasible
(adj.) possible, able to be done
indulgent
(adj) yielding to the wishes or demands of others
marred
blemished by injury or rough wear-adj
pariah
(n.) one who is rejected by a social group or organization
profanity
vulgar or irreverent speech or action- noun
serrated
notched like a saw with teeth pointing toward the apex-adj
urbane
(adj.) refined in manner or style, suave
6-1
...
antiquated
so extremely old as seeming to belong to an earlier period-adj
choleric
(adj.) easily made angry, bad-tempered
diorama
life-size, three-dimensional scene from nature or history; three-dimensional scene with modeled figures against a painted background- noun
fecund
fertile, productive-adj
inebriation
a temporary state resulting from excessive consumption of alcohol- noun
marshal
ⓥ arrange in logical order, noun-a law officer having duties similar to those of a sheriff in carrying out the judgments of a court of law
parity
equality in amount, status, or value- noun
profound
deep, insightful -adj
servile
(adj.) of or relating to a slave; behaving like or suitable for a slave or a servant, menial; lacking spirit or independence, abjectly submissive
usurp
(v.) to seize and hold a position by force or without right
6-2
...
apathetic
(adj.) lacking concern, emotion
chronicler
historian- noun
dirge
slow, sad music, esp. a funeral hymn- noun
felicitous
exhibiting an agreeably appropriate manner or style-adj
ineffable
cannot be expressed in words-adj
marsupial
mammals of which the females have a pouch (the marsupium) containing the teats where the young are fed and carried- noun
parochial
adj. local; narrow; limited
profundity
the quality of being physically deep- noun
skeptical
marked by or given to doubt-adj
utilitarian
(adj.) stressing practicality over other considerations; relating to the belief that what is good or desirable is determined purely by its usefulness
6-3
...
apathy
the trait of lacking enthusiasm for or interest in things generally- noun ( indifferent)
circuitous
(adj.) roundabout, not direct
disapprobation
n. disapproval; condemnation (the expression of very strong disapprova)
fervor
n. glowing ardor; intensity of feeling
inept
Adjective (adj.) totally without skill or appropriateness
martinet
(n.) a strict disciplinarian; a stickler for the rules
parody
humorous or satirical mimicry- noun
the making or a humorous version -verb
proletarian
a member of the working class (not necessarily employed) -noun
skirmish
n. a minor conflict, minor fight; minor battle in war; V.
utopian
(adj) founded upon or involving a visionary view of an ideal world, an idealistic (but usually impractical) social reformer- noun
6-4
...
apocryphal
of questionable authenticity- adj
circumlocution
an indirect way of expressing something - noun talking in circles
discern
detect with the senses- verb
fickle
(adj.) liable to change very rapidly, erratic; marked by a lack of constancy or steadiness, inconsistent
inertia
inactivity; lethargy- noun
masochist
someone who enjoys being hurt- noun
parry
(v.) to ward off, fend off, deflect, evade, avoid; (n.) a defensive movement in fencing and other sports
prolific
productive-adj
sluggard
slow-moving; lethargic person- noun
vacillate
be undecided about something- verb
6-5
...
appease
make peace with- verb
circumscribe
to draw a circle around; to restrict-verb
discord
conflict; lack of harmony; dissonance (when musical notes are played)- noun and a verb- to disagree
finesse
(n.) Delicate skill; tact and cleverness; (v.) to accomplish something by cleverness, good judgment, or skillful evasion
inevitable
(adj.) sure to happen, unavoidable
, an unavoidable event- noun
matriarchy
a form of social organization in which a female is the family head and title is traced through the female line- noun
parsimonious
excessively unwilling to spend-adj
proponents
supporters- noun
someone who publicly advocates (supports) a theory or a statement
smelt
verb [ with obj. ]
extract (metal) from its ore by a process involving heating and melting
• extract a metal from (ore) in this way.

noun
a small silvery fish that lives in both marine and fresh water and is sometimes fished commercially, in particular
vacuous
adjective
having or showing a lack of thought or intelligence; mindless (empty)
6-6
...
apprehensive
(adj.) fearful or anxious, especially about the future
circumspect
(adj) careful, cautious
discordancy
(adj) cacophony; jarring
fitful
adj. occurring in irregular outbursts; occurring in spurts
inexorable
(adj.) inflexible, beyond influence; relentless, unyielding
maverick
(n) an independent individual who does not go along with a group or party
parsimony
n. excessive care in spending; stinginess
prosaic
(adj.) dull, lacking in distinction and originality; matter-of-fact, straightforward; characteristic of prose, not poetic
smorgasbord
a collection containing a variety of sorts of things, a Swedish buffet of cold dishes, a wide variety (n)
vagrant
(n.) an idle wanderer, tramp; (adj.) wandering aimlessly
6-7
...
arable
adj. fit for growing crops
circumvent
outwit; defeat by behaving more cleverly; outsmart; baffle; avoid; get around (V)
discrepancy
(n.) a difference, a lack of agreement
flagrant
(adj.) extremely bad, glaring; scandalous, notorious
inexpedient
(adj.) Impractical, not an effective way of getting things done...opp of exp..
meager
(adj.) poor, scant, unsatisfactory; thin, slight
partisan
(n.) a strong supporter of a person, party or cause; one whose support is unreasoning; a resistance fighter, guerrilla;
(adj.) strongly supporting one side only
proscribe
(v.) to condemn, outlaw
solace
(n.) comfort, relief; (v.) to comfort, console
vapid
(adj.) dull, uninteresting, tiresome; lacking in sharpness, flavor, liveliness, or force
6-8
...
arbitrary
(adj.) Unreasonable; based on one's wishes or whims without regard for reason or fairness
clairvoyant
(adj) supernaturally perceptive; (n) one who possesses extrasensory powers, seer
discriminate
v. to make a clear distinction
flamboyant
adj. Excessively showy; unrestrained
infallible
(adj.) free from error ; absolutely dependable
meander
(v.) to wander about, wind about; (n.) a sharp turn or twist
pathos
(n.) an emotion of sympathy (Martha filled with ____upon discovering the scrawny, shivering kitten at her door.)
prosody
n. The science of poetical forms.
solicit
v. to ask for; to seek
variegated
adj. distinctly marked with different colors; diverse
6-9
...
arcane
adj. secret; mysterious; known only to the initiated
clamor
n. a public outcry; any loud and countied noise; v. to call for by loud, continued outcries
discursiveness
(n) long-windedness; indirectness
flaunt
(v.) to wave or flutter showily; to display in a conceited, offensive way
infamous
adj. having a bad reputation
mellow
(adj.) , ripe well matured soft sweet and rich (v.) To become gentle or sweet
patron
n. a sponsor; a supporter; a regular customer
prostration
1. lying face down; 2. be overcome with extreme weakness- noun
somnambulist
someone who walks about in their sleep- noun
vehemence
(n) intense feeling; passion; great fervor; violence, impetuousness; great force
6-10
...
archaic
adj. Antiquated
clandestine
(adj.) secret, concealed; underhanded
disdain
(n.) intense dislike; (v.) to treat with scorn or contempt, to reject as unworthy
flippant
(adj) lacking in seriousness; disrespectful, saucy
infer
(v.) to find out by reasoning; to arrive at a conclusion on the basis of thought; to hint, suggest, imply
menagerie
n. a collection of wild and strange animals kept in cages
patronize
v. to sponsor or support; to be kind or helpful in a snobbish way, as if dealing with an inferior
protagonist
n. A leader in any enterprise or contest.
soothsayer
someone who makes predictions of the future (usually on the basis of special knowledge)- noun
vehement
(adj.) intense, forceful, powerful
7-1
...
archetype
n. the original pattern or model; a perfect example
clemency
(n.) mercy, humaneness; mildness, moderateness
disinterested
(adj.) fair-minded, free from selfish motives; indifferent
flout
(v) to mock, treat with contempt
ingenue
actress playing the role of a naive young woman- noun
mendacious
(adj.) given to lying or deception; untrue
paucity
(n.) an inadequate quantity, scarcity, dearth
protean
(adj.) able to change shape; displaying great variety
sophomoric
(adj) immature and overconfident; conceited
venal
(adj) open to or marked by bribery or corruption
7-2
...
archives
n. public records; place where public records are kept
cliche
a trite or obvious remark-n
disparage
(v.) to belittle, speak slightingly of; to undervalue
flustered
(adj.) nervous and confused
ingrate
n. an ungrateful person
mercenary
a person hired to fight for another country than their own- n
adjective-
(of a person or their behavior) primarily concerned with making money at the expense of ethics
peccadillo
(n.) a minor sin or offense; a trifling fault or shortcoming
protege
n. One specially cared for and favored by another usually older person.
soporific
(adj.) tending to cause sleep, relating to sleepiness or lethargy; (n.) something that induces sleep
veneer
(n.) a thin outer layer; a surface appearance or decoration; (v.) to cover with a thin layer
7-3
...
articulate
(v.) To pronounce distinctly; to express well in words; to fit together into a system; (adj.) able to use language effectively; expressed clearly and forcefully
clientele
n. body of customers
disparity
n. inequality; difference
fly-by-night
unreliable; disreputable-adj
inimical
(adj.) - hostile, threatening
mercurial
(adj.) - quick and changeable in temperament, liable to sudden unpredictable change
pedant
n. A scholar who makes needless and inopportune display of his learning.
n- a person who is concerned about details
protocol
code of conduct- noun
sparse
(adj.) meager, scant; scattered
venerate
(v.) to regard with reverence, look up to with great respect
7-4
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artifice
(n.) a skillful or ingenious device; a clever trick; a clever skill; trickery
coalesce
to grow together to form a single whole-verb
dispassionate
(adj.) impartial; calm, free from emotion
forensic
adj. related to the law or debate
innate
(adj.) natural, inborn, inherent; built-in
merge
join or combine-verb
pedestrian
lacking wit or imagination- adj, a person who travels by foot- noun
provincial
a country person- noun, characteristic of the provinces or their people-adj
specious
(adj.) deceptive, apparently good or valid but lacking real merit, misleading
venial
(adj) easily excused; pardonable
7-5
...
artisan
a skilled worker who practices some trade or handicraft- noun
coddle
v. to treat indulgently, gently, with great care
disseminating
(v.) to spread, to disperse throughout
fortitude
(n.) courage in facing difficulties
innocuous
(adj.) harmless, inoffensive; insignificant
metaphorically
in a metaphorical manner-adverb
peerless
having no equal; incomparable-adj
prudent
wise and careful about practical matters-adj
speckled
having a pattern of dots-adj (speckled)
veracity
unwillingness to tell lies- noun
7-6
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ascetic
noun
a person who practices such self-discipline and abstention.
adjective
characterized by or suggesting the practice of severe self-discipline and abstention from all forms of indulgence, typically for religious reasons:
coercion
(n) use of force to get someone to obey
diurnal
adj. Daily.
fortuitous
occurring by happy chance-adj
innovate
bring something new to an environment- verb
meticulous
marked by precise accordance with details-adj, extremely careful
pejorative
(adj.) tending to make worse; expressing disapproval or disparagement, derogatory, deprecatory, belittling
puerile
displaying or suggesting a lack of maturity-adj
sporadic
(adj.) occurring at irregular intervals, having no set plan or order
verbose
using or containing too many words-adj
7-7
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assiduous
(adj.) persistent, attentive, diligent
cogent
(Adj.) forceful, convincing; relevant, to the point
divert
1. entertain; 2. distract; 3. cause a detour-verb
fractious
(adj.) tending to be troublesome; unruly, quarrelsome, contrary; unpredictable
inscrutable
(adj.) incapable of being understood; impossible to see through physically
mettle
the courage to carry on- noun
pellucid
(adj.) - clear
punctilious
(adj.) Very careful and exact, attentive to fine points of etiquette or propriety
spurious
(adj.) not genuine, not true, not valid
verbosity
an expressive style that uses excessive words- noun
7-8
...
assuage
(v.) to make easier or milder, relieve; to quiet, calm; to put an end to, appease, satisfy, quench
cogitate
(v.) to think hard; ponder; meditate
docile
(adj.) easily taught, led, or managed; obedient
fraudulent
ADJ. cheating; deceitful.
insentient
devoid of feeling and consciousness and animation-adj
milieu
(n.) the setting, surroundings, environment
pensive
(adj) thoughtful; melancholy
purloin
v. to steal
stagnant
(adj.) not running or flowing; foul from standing still; inactive, sluggish, dull
vertigo
n. dizziness, a sensation loss of balance
7-9
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astute
(adj.) shrewd, crafty, showing practical wisdom
collage
n. work of art put together from fragments
dogmatic
characterized by arrogant assertion of unproved or unprovable principles- adj
frivolous
(adj.) of little importance, not worthy of serious attention; not meant seriously
insipid
lacking significance or impact-adj (flavor)
mire
noun
1 a stretch of swampy or boggy ground.
• soft and slushy mud or dirt.
• Ecology a wetland area or ecosystem based on peat.
2 a situation or state of difficulty
verb [ with obj. ]
cause to become stuck in mud
• cover or spatter with mud.
• someone/something in) involve someone or something in (a difficulti situation):
penury
(n.) extreme poverty; barrenness, insufficiency
pusillanimous
(adj.) contemptibly cowardly or mean-spirited
staid
(adj.) serious and dignified; quiet or subdued in character or conduct
vestigial
(adj.) remaining after nearly all has disappeared.
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asylum
(n.) an institution for the care of children, elderly people, etc.; a place of safety
collate
(v.) to compare critically in order to note differences, similarities, etc.; to arrange in order for some scientific purpose
dolt
a person who is not very bright- noun
frugal
(adj.) economical, avoiding waste and luxury; scanty, poor, meager
instigate
(v.) to urge on; to stir up, provoke, start, incite
misanthrope
(n.) a person who hates or despises people
perceptive
(adj.) having sympathetic insight or understanding, capable of keen appreciation
pyromania
n. An insane propensity to set things on fire.
stanza
a fixed number of lines of verse forming a unit of a poem- noun
vignette
a small illustrative sketch (as sometimes placed at the beginning of chapters in books)- noun
8-1
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atheist
someone who denies the existence of god- noun
colloquial
characteristic of informal spoken language or conversation-adj
dotard
noun
an old person, esp. one who has become weak or senile.
furrow
Noun:
A long narrow trench made in the ground by a plow, esp. for planting seeds or for irrigation (supply water to (land or crops) to help growth, typically by means of channels.).

Verb:
Make a rut, groove, or trail in (the ground or the surface of something).
instigator
someone who deliberately foments trouble- n
misnomer
(n.) an unsuitable or misleading name
(guinea pig- which is neither originated from Guinea nor it is a pig)
percipient
adjective
(of a person) having a good understanding of things; perceptive
noun
(esp. in philosophy or with reference to psychic phenomena) a person who is able to perceive things.
quaff
verb [ with obj. ]
drink (something, esp. an alcoholic drink) heartily.
staunch
1
adjective
1 loyal and committed in attitude
2 (of a wall) of strong or firm construction.
• archaic (of a ship) watertight.

2 |stônCH|
verb
variant spelling of stanch (stop or restrict blood from a wound)
vilification
a rude expression intended to offend or hurt- noun
8-2
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atrophy
to waste away, to wither
collusion
secret agreement- noun conspiracy
drawl
verb [ no obj. ]
speak in a slow, lazy way with prolonged vowel sounds: [ with direct speech ] : "Suits me fine," he drawled.
noun [ in sing. ]
a slow, lazy way of speaking or an accent with unusually prolonged vowel sounds: a Texas drawl.
furtive
(adj.) done slyly or stealthily, sneaky, secret, shifty; stolen
insurgent
(n.) one who rebels or rises against authority; (adj.) rising in revolt, refusing to accept authority surging or rushing in or on
misogynist
one who hates women/females
perdition
n. damnation; ruin; hell
quagmire
a swamp; a difficult or inextricable situation- noun
stereotype
noun
1 a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing
• a person or thing that conforms to such an image

2 a relief printing plate cast in a mold made from composed type or an original plate.
verb [ with obj. ]
view or represent as a _____________
vindicate
clear of accusation, blame, suspicion, or doubt with supporting proof- verb
8-3
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attenuate
become weaker, in strength, value, or magnitude-verb
commandeer
take arbitrarily or by force- verb
drivel
saliva spilling from the mouth- noun
futile
unproductive of success-adj
interminable
tiresomely long-adj
misrepresentation
a misleading falsehood-noun
peremptory
putting an end to all debate or action-adj
quaint
very strange or unusual-adj
stevedore
a laborer who loads and unloads vessels in a port- noun
virtuoso
someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field-noun
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augment
enlarge or increase-verb
complacent
(adj.) self-satisfied; overly content
droll
comical in an odd or whimsical manner-adj
galleon
a large square-rigged sailing ship with three or more masts-noun
intermittent
(adj.) stopping and beginning again, sporadic
mitigate
(v.) to make milder or softer, to moderate in force or intensity
perfidy
betrayal of a trust- n
quandary
state of uncertainty or perplexity especially as requiring a choice between equally unfavorable options-n
stifle
(v.) to smother, prevent form breathing; to hold back or choke off
, joint between the femur and tibia in a quadruped- noun
virulent
extremely poisonous or injurious-adj
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auspicious
attended by favorable circumstances-adj
compliant
disposed or willing to comply-adj
drone
(n.) a loafer, idler; a buzzing or humming sound; a remote-control device; a male bee; (v.) to make a buzzing sound; to speak in a dull tone of voice
gambol
(v.) to jump or skip about playfully, gay or light-hearted recreational activity for diversion or amusement- noun
intransigence
the trait of being intransigent- noun
modicum
a small or moderate or token amount- noun
perfunctory
hasty and without attention to detail-adj
quarantine
isolation of a person, place, or ship to prevent spread of infection; V: isolate in quarantine
stoic
adj. apparently indifferent to joy, grief, pleasure, or pain
vital
(adj.) having life, living; necessary to life, essential; key, crucial
8-6
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austere
adj. Severely simple; unadorned.
concatenate
To link together in a series or chain- v
dubious
fraught with uncertainty or doubt-adj
garble
(v.) to distort in such a way as to make unintelligible
intransigent
(adj.) refusing to compromise, irreconcilable
momentous
(adj) very important
peripatetic
adj. moving or walking about; itinerant
quarry
(v.) to cut or take from (or as if from) ; (n.) a place from which stone is taken; something that is hunted or pursued
stoke
stir up or tend-v
vitriolic
harsh or corrosive in tone-adj
8-7
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aversion
n. firm dislike
concatenation
(n.) a linking together in a sequence; a chain
dupe
(n.) a person easily tricked or deceived; (v.) to deceive
garish
adj. excessively bright and flashy; tastelessly glaring
intrepid
(adj) very brave, fearless, unshakable
monotonous
adj. Always the same; not varying; boring.
peripheral
adj. marginal; outer
querulous
(adj.) peevish, complaining, fretful
stolid
(adj.) not easily moved mentally or emotionally; dull, unresponsive
vivacity
n. Liveliness.
8-8
...
balk
(v.) to stop short and refuse to go on; to refuse abruptly; to prevent from happening; (n.) (in baseball) an illegal motion made by a pitcher
conciliate
(v.) to overcome the distrust of, win over; to appease, pacify; to reconcile, make consistent
dynamic
(adj.) - characterized by continuous change or activity
garner
(v.) to acquire as the result of effort; to gather and store away, as for future use
inveterate
(adj.) firmly established, long-standing; habitual
moratorium
(n.) A suspension of activity; an official waiting period; an authorized period of delay
perjury
(n.) the act of swearing to a lie
quirk
(n.) a peculiar way of acting; a sudden twist or turn
stratagem
(n.) a scheme to outwit or deceive an opponent or to gain an end
vivify
v. To endue with life.
8-9
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concise
(adj.) expressing much in a few words
ebullient
adj. enthusiastic
garrulous
(adj.) given to much talking, tediously chatty
invidious
(adj.) offensive, hateful; tending to cause bitterness and resentment
moribund
(adj.) dying, on the way out
pernicious
(adj.) extremely harmful; deadly, fatal
ramble
verb [ no obj. ]
1 walk for pleasure, typically without a definite route.
• (of a plant) put out long shoots and grow over walls or other plants.
2 talk or write at length in a confused or inconsequential way
noun
a walk taken for pleasure, esp. in the countryside.
strident
adj. harsh sounding; grating
vociferous
(adj.) loud and noisy; compelling attention
8-10
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banality
something that is trite, obvious, or predictable; a commonplace- noun
condescend
do something that one considers to be below one's dignity-verb
eccentric
adj. unconventional; odd
noun
1 a person of unconventional and slightly strange views or behavior:
gaunt
(adj.) thin and bony, starved looking; bare, barren
inviolable
(adj.) sacred; of such a character that it must not be broken, injured, or profaned
morose
(adj.) having a gloomy or sullen manner; not friendly or sociable
persnickety
overparticular; fussy-adj
ramification
n. a development or consequence resulting from a course of action
stringent
(adj.) strict, severe; rigorously or urgently binding or compelling; sharp or bitter to the taste
volatile
(adj.) highly changeable, fickle; tending to become violent or explosive; changing readily from the liquid to the gaseous state
9-1
...
bane
something causes misery or death- noun
condone
(v.) to pardon or overlook
eclectic
(adj.) drawn from different sources; (n.) one whose beliefs are drawn from various sources
genre
a type, class, or category, especially of fine art or literature- noun
irascible
(adj.) easily made angry, hot-tempered
mundane
(adj.) earthly, worldly, relating to practical and material affairs; concerned with what is ordinary
perpetuated
verb, committed, carried out, brought about
rancor
a feeling of deep and bitter anger and ill-will- noun
strut
a proud stiff pompous gait- noun
to walk with a lofty proud gait, often in an attempt to impress others- verb
voluble
(adj.) characterized by a ready flow of words; glib, fluent
9-2
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bard
(n.) - a poet, often a singer as well
condoning
to overlook; forgive or disregard-verb
edifice
a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place- noun
germane
(adj) relevant, appropriate, apropos, fitting
ire
a strong emotion- n
munificent
(adj.) extremely generous, lavish
perpetuity
n. a state of infinite or indefinately long duration
rant
(v) to speak wildly and noisily; (n) loud, violent talk
stupefy
(v.) to make stupid, dull, or groggy; to surprise or astonish
voluminous
(adj.) of great size; numerous; writing or speaking at great length
9-3
...
bastion
(n.) a fortified place, stronghold
conflagration
(n.) a large destructive fire
efface
(v.) to wipe out; to keep oneself from being noticed
germinal
(Adj.)pertaining to a germ; creative.
irksome
annoying; tedious; V. irk: annoy
mutinous
rebellious, unruly-adj
personable
(adj.) pleasing in appearance or personality, attractive
ratify
(v.) to approve, give formal approval to, confirm
subpoena
N. writ summoning a witness to appear. alsoV.
voracious
(adj.) having a huge appetite, greedy, ravenous; excessively eager
9-4
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befuddle
(v.) to confuse, make stupid
confound
(v.) - to frustrate
effigy
(n.) a crude image of a despised person
gibbering
Unintelligible or foolish talk. (N)
ironic
(adj.) suggesting an incongruity between what might be expected and what actually happens; given to irony, sarcastic
myriad
(adj.) in very great numbers; (n.) a very great number
perspicacious
adj. having keen perception or understanding
raucous
(adj.) disagreeably harsh-sounding; disorderly
substantiate
(v.) to establish by evidence, prove; to give concrete or substantial form to
waive
(v.) to do without, give up voluntarily; to put off temporarily, defer
9-5
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begrudge
v. to resent another's success; to envy
congeal
(v) to change from liquid to solid, thicken; to make inflexible or rigid
effusive
adj. emotionally excessive; overly demonstrative
glacial
adj. like a glacier; extremely cold
irrational
adj. Not possessed of reasoning powers or understanding.
navigable
adj. Capable of commercial navigation.
perspicacity
(n.) keenness in observing and understanding
raze
(v.) to tear down, destroy completely; to cut or scrape off or out
subterfuge
(N) an excuse or trick for escaping or hiding something
wane
(v) to lose size, strength, or power
9-6
...
beguile
to trick, deceive-verb
congenital
adj. present since birth; being an essential characteristic
egalitarianism
n. a belief in human equality especially with respect to social, political, and economic affairs
goad
(v.) to drive or urge on; (n.) something used to drive or urge on
irreproachable
adj. blameless; impeccable
nebulous
(adj.) cloudlike, resembling a cloud; cloudy in color, not transparent; vague, confused, indistinct
pertinent
(adj.) related to the matter at hand, to the point
rebuttal
A counterargument, especially in debate- noun
subtel
not obvious; delicate; fine-adj
wary
marked by keen caution and watchful prudence-adj
9-7
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belabor
verb [ with obj. ]
1 argue or elaborate (a subject) in excessive detail
2 attack or assault (someone) physically or verbally:
connoisseur
(n.) an expert; one who is well qualified to pass critical judgments, especially in one of the fine arts
egregious
(adj.) conspicuous, standing out from the mass (used particularly in an unfavorable sense)
grate
v., scratch repeatedly
irrevocable
(adj.) incapable of being changed or called back
nefarious
very wicked-adj
peruse
(v.) to read thoroughly and carefully
recant
(v.) to withdraw a statement or belief to which one has previously been committed, renounce, retract
subversive
(adj.) intended to undermine or overthrow; (n.) one who advocates or attempts to undermine a political system
wax
noun
a sticky yellowish moldable substance secreted by honeybees as the material of honeycomb; beeswax.

verb [ with obj. ]
1 cover or treat (something) with wax or a similar substance, typically to polish or protect it
wax 2
verb [ no obj. ]
(of the moon between new and full) have a progressively larger part of its visible surface illuminated, increasing its apparent size.

noun [ usu. in sing. ] Brit. informal, dated
a fit of anger
9-8
...
beleaguer
to harass, plague-verb
consecrate
(v.) to make sacred, hallow; to set apart for a special purpose
egress
come out of- verb
gratis
(adj.) free; (adv.) without charge
itinerant
adj. traveling from place to place, esp. for work
negate
(v.) to nullify, deny, bring to nothing
pervasive
widespread-adj
recapitulate
(v.) to review a series of facts; to sum up
succinct
adjective
(esp. of something written or spoken) briefly and clearly expressed:
waylay
(v) to lie in wait for and attack, ambush
9-9
...
belie
represent falsely-verb
consensus
agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by a group as a whole- noun
eloquent
expressing yourself readily, clearly, effectively-adj
gratuitous
(adj.) freely given; not called for by circumstances, unwarranted
jaded
(adj.) wearied, worn-out, dulled (in the sense of being satiated by excessive indulgence)
negligence
n. careless neglect, often resulting in injury
petrify
1. terrify; 2. turn to stone- verb
receptacle
container that is used to put or keep things in- noun
suffragist
an advocate of the extension of voting rights (especially to women)- noun
weighty
adjective
1.
having considerable weight; heavy; ponderous:
2.
burdensome or troublesome:
3.
important or momentous:
4.
having or exerting influence, power, etc.; influential:
9-10
...
belittle
(v.) to make something appear smaller than it is; to refer to in a way that suggests lack of importance or value
conspicuous
easy to notice; obvious-adj
elucidate
(v.) to clarify, explain
gravity
noun,
1.
the force of attraction by which terrestrial bodies tend to fall toward the center of the earth.
2.
heaviness or weight.
3.
gravitation in general.
4.
acceleration of gravity.
5.
a unit of acceleration equal to the acceleration of gravity.
jargon
noun
1.
the language, especially the vocabulary, peculiar to a particular trade, profession, or group:
2.
unintelligible or meaningless talk or writing; gibberish.
3.
any talk or writing that one does not understand.
4.
pidgin.
5.
language that is characterized by uncommon or pretentious vocabulary and convoluted syntax and is often vague in meaning.

verb
to speak or write in jargon
neologism
the act of inventing a word or phrase- noun
petulant
(adj.) peevish, annoyed by trifles, easily irritated and upset
recluse
(n.) a person who leads a life shut up or withdrawn from the world
supercilious
having or showing arrogant superiority to and disdain of those one views as unworthy-adj
whelp
young of any of various canines such as a dog or wolf- noun
10-1
...
bellicose
having or showing a ready disposition to fight-adj
consummate
verb (used with object)
1.
to bring to a state of perfection; fulfill.
2.
to complete (an arrangement, agreement, or the like) by a pledge or the signing of a contract: The company consummated its deal to buy a smaller firm.
elusive
(adj.) difficult to catch or to hold; hard to explain or understand
gregarious
(adj.) living together in a herd or group; sociable, seeking the company of others
jaundiced
showing or affected by prejudice or envy or distaste-adj
nettle
(n.) a prickly or stinging plant; (v.) to arouse displeasure, impatience, or anger; to vex or irritate severely
phenomenon
n. an occurence that can be perceived by the senses; a remarkable person or event
recuperate
v. to regain health or strength
superlative
an exaggerated expression (usually of praise)- noun
whet
(v.) to sharpen, put an edge on; to make keen or eager
10-2
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belligerent
(adj.) given to fighting, warlike; combative, aggressive; (n.) one at war, one engaged in war
gritty
(adj.) feeling like sand
jaunt
N. /trip; short journey.
niggardly
petty in giving or spending-adj
philanthropy
n. The attempt to improve the well-being of those in need by donating money or aid.
red
noun
1.
any of various colors resembling the color of blood; the primary color at one extreme end of the visible spectrum, an effect of light with a wavelength between 610 and 780 nm.
2.
( often initial capital letter ) a radical leftist in politics, especially a communist.

adjective
7.
of the color
8.
having distinctive areas or markings of ____________
9.
of or indicating a state of financial loss or indebtedness
10.
radically left politically.
11.
( often initial capital letter ) communist.
tape
noun
1.
a long, narrow strip of linen, cotton, or the like, used for tying garments, binding seams or carpets, etc.
2.
a long, narrow strip of paper, metal, etc.
3.
a strip of cloth, paper, or plastic with an adhesive surface, used for sealing, binding, or attaching items together;
4.
tape measure.
5.
a string stretched across the finishing line in a race and broken by the winning contestant on crossing the line.

verb (used with object)
9.
to furnish with a tape or tapes.
10.
to tie up, bind, or attach with
11.
to measure with or as if with a tape measure.
12.
to record or prerecord on magnetic tape.
surly
(adj.) angry and bad-tempered; rude
whimsical
(adj.) subject to odd ideas, notions, or fancies; playful; unpredictable
10-3
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bemoan
regret strongly-verb
contrite
extremely apologetic, remorseful, repentant-adj
emancipate
(v.) to free from slavery; to release or liberate