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Chapter 6 Medieval Europe Study Guide
Terms in this set (36)
Describe what Europe was like after the fall of Rome.
Once Rome no longer united people, Europe's geography began to play a more significant role in shaping events. Western Europe was divided into many kingdoms, based on location.
Angles and Saxons, Celts and Franks (location on map).
Refer to map on page 325
"The Hammer" the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslims in Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
What did Pepin do for the Pope?
Pepin had donated the land he had conquered to the pope. The pope ruled these lands as if he were a king, and they became known as the Papal states. Also, Pepin took the army into Italy and defeated Lombords and donated the land to people.
Charlemagne and his many accomplishments (conquests, education, government, Christianity)
Son of Pepin, grew empire until it covered much of western and central Europe (invaded Germany and defeated Saxons, invaded and controlled part of Spain) declared Holy Roman Emperor by Pope in 800 AD, set up courts throughout the Empire, advocate of education,
The role of the church and monasteries in medieval society (what did monks do)?
monasteries were communities of monks. Monks schooled people, provided food and rest to travelers, offered medical care for the sick, taught carpentry, weaving and better methods of farming, helped preserve knowledge preserved Latin language, produced goods and owned land, abbots (leaders of monasteries) served as advisers to kings, spread Christianity
What does excommunicate mean?
to exclude a person from church membership, where Catholics believed that if they were excommunicated they would not go to heaven
The Concordat of Worms
An agreement that only the pope could choose bishops, but only the emperor could give them jobs in the government
Describe feudalism and what the portions of land were called under this system.
Under feudalism, nobles were both lords and vassals. A vassal was a noble who served a lord of a higher rank. Under feudalism, landowning nobles protected the people in return for services, such as fighting in a nobles;s army or farming the land. Land granted to a vassal was known as a fief.
Explain the role of serfs, vassals, fiefs, manors, lords and kings
In return for the vassal's military service, a lord granted the vassal land (fiefs). These vassals were known as knights and the fiefs were called manors. The lord ruled the manor and peasants worked the land. Most peasants were serfs and could not leave the manor, own property, or marry without their lords approval.
What was the role of castles and what were some of the features/defenses (moat/bailey, keep)?
The castle was at the center of the manor, and had a steep sided hill (motte), a bailey (open space next to the motte), a keep (central building of the castle).
Explain Knights and Chivalry
Knights followed certain rules called the code of chivalry. A knight was expected to obey his lord, be brave, to show respect to women of noble birth, to honor the church, and to help people
What was the role of the guild and the 3 stages to joining a guild (medieval guild packet)
Guilds were organized groups of craftspeople that set standards for quality in products and decided who could join a trade and the process they had to follow to do so. A person could become an apprentice at 10 and learn a trade from a master craftsperson (provided room and board but no wages), after 5-7 years, the apprentice became a journeyman and worked for wages. To become a master, a journeyman had to produce a masterpiece (an example of something of outstanding quality).
Describe problems of medieval cities
They were crowded, dirty and smelly, wood fires filed air with ash and smoke, waste was dumped into rivers, high danger of fires
What did William the Conqueror do and what is his legacy?
Bayeux Tapestry and Domesday Book
The Bayeux Tapestry recounts the Battle of Hastings, with embroidery representing the incidents of William the conqueror's expedition to England. The Domesday book was a census taken by William to count people, manors and farm animals.
What is Common Law?
Henry II set up common law,, which had a body of common law that was the same throughout the entire country. There were grand juries (decided if people should be accused of a crime), trial juries (decide whether an accused person is innocent or guilty), lawyers and judges.
King John and the Magna Carta
King John raised taxes and punished enemies without trials; as a result, English nobles refused to obey him unless he agreed to guarantee certain rights as outlined by the Magna Carta (took away some of king's powers such that he could only collect taxes with Great Council's approval, right to fair trials by peers for Freemen, established idea that people have rights and government power should be limited, habeas corpus)
What is Habeas Corpus?
protects a person from being imprisoned indefinitely without a trial
The Parliament is what type of government?
Describe the causes/events/effects of the First Crusade
(1096 - 1099) Crusade called by Pope Urban II which captured Jerusalem. (only militarily successful Crusade)
Describe the causes/events/effects of the Third Crusade.
(1189 - 1192) Crusade led by King Richard the Lionhearted to recapture the city of Jerusalem from Islamic forces led by Saladin; failed in attempt.
Relationship between Richard and Saladin.
In 1174 a Muslim named Saladin became ruler of Egypr and united Muslims and declared war against the Christina states the Crusaders had built. He defeated Christians and captured Jerusalem in 1187. The fall of Jerusalem led to the Third Crusade, where King Richard agreed to a truce after Saladin promised Christian pilgrims could travel to Jerusalem in Safety.
What are the three lasting effects of the Crusades?
They increased trade between Europe and the Middle East, and they helped break down feudalism (nobles who joined the Crusades sold their lands and freed their serfs, which enabled kings to build stronger central governments).
What was the influence and the role of the Catholic Church in medieval life?
What was the Inquisition and Heresy?
The Inquisition, which was a Church court, was established in 1223 by the pope to try heretics (people whose religious beliefs conflict with church doctrine).
What are the causes and examples of anti-Semitism in Europe?
People blamed the Jews for the Black Death and they were expelled, governments made them wear special badges, Christian mobs attacked and killed Jews, Jews had to live in separate communities called ghettos and lost the right to own land and practice certain trades, blamed for economic problems (Jews lent money for interest which Christians believed was a sin)
Difference between Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals
Romanesque cathedrals have rounded barrel vault ceilings, gothic cathedrals used flying buttresses on the exterior to hold up the tall ceiling inside
What is Theology?
the study of religion and God
Thomas Aquinas and natural law
Thomas Aquinas was scholasticisms greatest champion and is known for combining church teachings with the ideas of Aristotle. Wrote about natural law, which is the belief that some laws are part of human nature and do not have to be made by governments.
What is the Vernacular?
everyday language of a particular region
The causes and effects of the Black Death
The Black Death probably began in the Gobi, but in the 1300s, it began to spread farther and more quickly than ever before. The Mongol Empire opened up trade between China, India, the Middle East and Europe through the Silk Road and other trade routes. Trading caravans infested with rats carried disease. Half the population died - fewer people meant trade declined, workers wages rose, food prices fell, lower rents, and freedom for serfs.
The cause, major events, people and effects of the Hundred Years' War.
In 1337 English king Edward III declared himself king of France and this started the war that lasted for over 100 years. In 1453 the French finally defeated the English, and the war strengthened French devotion to their country - French kings used this devotion to form a strong government. The Hundred Years' War took a toll on the English economy and a civil war broke out (War of the Roses) as to who should be king (King Henry VII won).
The Reconquista was the Christian struggle to take back the Iberian peninsula from the Muslims
Ferdinand and Isabella
In 1469, Princess Isabella of Castile and Prince Ferdinand of Aragon married and united Spain. They wanted all of Spain to be Catholic and began to pressure Jews to convert.
The Alhambra Decree
Order for the expulsion of all Jews from Spain in 1492.
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