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173 terms

Endocrine

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Endocrine System
glands that produce hormones that regulate the bodys growth, metabolism and sexual developement and function
Endocrine Glands are usually called
glands of internal secretion because they exude chemical products directly into the bloodstream
The endocrines chemical messengers are called
hormones
Endocrine glands found in the head
(3) Hypothalmus, Pituitary, Pineal
Endocrine glands in the neck and trunk area
(8) Thyroid, Parathyroid, Thymus, Adrenals, Pancreas, Ovaries, Testes, Placenta
controls and is controlled by hormones
the hypothalmus
the hypothalmus contains
millions of nerve cells
the hypothalmus stimulates
pituitary gland
The hypothalmus links the endocrine system with
the nervous system
Pineal gland controls
body rhythms such as sleeping and waking
how is the pineal gland connected to the nerves
from the eyes
The pituitary gland is also called
The Master Gland, because it controls many other endocrine glands
The pituitary gland is
directly linked to the hypothalmus and acts as the systems overall coordinator
homeostasis
constant internal conditions, stability
The hypothalmus maintains
homeostasis by regulating internal environment
examples of the internal environment
heartbeat, body temperature, water balance and secretions of the pituitary gland
pineal gland location
center of the brain
hormone secreted by pineal gland
melatonin
sunlight is needed
for the pineal gland to function
pineal gland UNDER secretion
causes SAD (Seasonal adjustment Disorder)
pineal gland OVER secretion
causes chloasma or melasma
chloasma is
brownish patches on the skin
melasma is
the mask of pregnancy
the pineal gland affects
female reproductive cycles, aging and helps us sleep
The Master Gland / Hypophysis
AKA the Pituitary Gland
pituitary gland location
sella turcica (bone cavity below the brain)
pituitary glands lobes
(3) Anterior, Intermediate, Posterior
What does the pituitary gland look like
cherry shaped and pea sized
hormones secreted by the Anterior Lobe
(6) ACTH, FSH, LH, TSH, GH and Prolactin
ACTH
Adrenocorticotropic
FSH
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
LH
Lutenizing Hormone
TSH
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
GH
Growth Hormone
Action of ACTH
stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete its hormone
UNDER secretion of ACTH
could result in atrophy of the adrenal cortex
OVER secretion of ACTH
could result in hypertrophy of the adrenal cortex
Gonadotropins
FSH and LH produced by the anterior pituitary gland
Action of FSH and LH
responsible for sexual development and production of sex hormones
FSH in Males
stimulates sperm production
FSH in Females
stimulates follicles to develop and also egg and estrogen production
UNDER secretion of FSH and LH
could cause infertility or sterility
LH in Males
stimulates androgen production
LH in Females
furthers development of egg and stimulates ovulation and secretion of progesterone
TSH is also called
Thyrotropin
Action of TSH
regulates and stimulates the thyroid gland
UNDER secretion of TSH in Adults
Hypothyroidism, Myxedema
UNDER secretion of TSH in infants
Hypothyroidism, Cretinism
OVER secretion of TSH
Hyperthyroidism, causes Grave's Disease
GH is also called
Somatotropin
Action of GH
regulates growth of body cells and bones
UNDER secretion of GH
could result in dwarfism in childhood
OVER secretion of GH
could result in giantism in childhood
or Acromegaly in adults
Acromegaly
excessively large body portions such as hands, feet and facial features
Prolactin
Milk Synthesis
Prolactin in Males
Amplifies production of LH
Prolactin in Females
responsible for development of mammary glands for production of milk
The intermediate lobe secretes 1 hormone
MSH (Melanin Stimulating Hormone)
MSH
Melanin Stimulating Hormone
MSH Affects
skin coloring, production of melanin (pigment)
UNDER secretion of MSH
can cause 2 types of Leukoderma (Albinism and Vitiligo)
Albinism
total lack of pigment
Vitiligo
White patches or lack of pigment in patches
ADH
Antidiuretic Hormone
ADH is also called
Vasopressin
ADH affects
water balance and blood pressure
UNDER secretion of ADH
Diabetes Insipidus (Water Diabetes)
Diabetes Insipidus symptoms
great thirst and lack of ability to retain fluid
OVER secretion of ADH
High Blood Pressure
Diabetes Mellitus
sugar diabetes, not enough insulin produces hyperglycemia (too much sugar) too much insulin produces hypoglycemia (too little sugar)
Hormones secreted in the posterior lobe
ADH and Oxytocin
Oxytocin in Males
aids in ejaculation
Oxytocin in Females
Stimulates uterine contractions and ejection of breast milk
thyroid gland looks like
butterfly shaped with two lobes joined in the middle by an isthmus
thyroid gland location
below the larynx or voicebox, on both sides of the windpipe
hormone secreted by the thyroid
thyroxin
action of thyroxin
regulates metabolism and increases oxygen
cretinism
hypothyroidism in infants
myxedema
hypothyroidism in adults
graves disease
hyperthyroidism
parathyroid location
in the four corners of the thyroid gland and in the thyroid tissue
hormone secreted by the parathyroid
parathormone
action of parathormone
controls calcium and phosphate levels in the blood
OVER secretion of parathormone
potential kidney stones (too much calcium)
UNDER secretion of parathormone
Tetany (too little calcium)
tetany
low blood calcium levels that can trigger nerve impulses and increased nerve excitability causing painful spasms of hands and feet
thymus gland
large at birth, shrinking to the size of a chestnut by puberty. by adulthood its atrophied and only weighs about 10g
thymus gland location
chest cavity, behind the breatbone and in front of the heart
hormone secreted by the thymus
thymic or thymosin
action of thymic/thymosin
thought to be linked with the immune system, possibly develops growth of lymphatic tissue
if removed at an early age, or if underdeveloped, may be lacking in immune/lymphatic tissue
thymus gland
adrenal glands
two small crescant shaped glands, one located above each kidney
regions of the adrenal glands
(2) cortex and medulla
cortex
outer portion of the adrenal glands, responsible for excessive hair growth
medulla
inner portion of the adrenal glands
adrenal cortex's groupings of hormones
corticosteroid hormones, mineral corticoids and sex steroids
corticosteroid hormones
(3) cortisol, cortisone and hydrocortisone
action of corticosteroid hormones
regulates carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism, aids in prevention of inflammation of joints and muscles, aids in resistance to stress, helps prevent severe allergic reaction and plays a part in increasing blood sugar levels
mineral corticoids
(2) aldosterone and spironolactone
spironolactone
hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. androgen blocker, common drug for men becoming women
action of mineral corticoids
regulate blood pressure, also regulates the concentration of sodium and potassium in body fluids (the balance of electrolytes in body fluids)
action of sex steroids
responsible for sexual development
sex steroids
estrogen, progesterone and androgens (male hormones such as testosterone)
sex steroid conditions
addisons disease, cushings syndrome, adrenal hyperplasia, adrenogenital syndrome and archard thiers
addisons disease
hypoadrenalism-under activity of the adrenal glands resulting in decreased mental activity, vitiligo, vomitting, nausea and weight loss
UNDER secretion in the sex steroids
hypoadrenalism (AKA addisons disease)
cushings syndrome
condition which causes the adrenal cortex to produce excessive amounts or hormones including androgens
cushings characteristics
hirsuitism, obesity of face (moon face), neck and trunk. arms and legs are unaffected but skin takes on a dusky color
adrenal hyperplasia
caused by excessive cell development or adrenal cortex or tumors on the adrenal cortex
adrenogenital syndrome
adrenal cortex produces androgens instead of cortisone causing male sex characteristics
archard thiers
diabetes of bearded women
archard thiers characteristics
obesity, hirsuitism, hypertension, excessive levels of androgens (a combination of adrenogenital and cushings)
adrenal medullas hormones
epinephrine/adrenalin, norepinephrine/noradrenalin
action of epinephrine/adrenalin
fight or flight, dilates blood vessels, increases blood pressure, increases heart rate, dilates airways and elevates blood sugar levels
action of norepinephrine/noradrenalin
released in response to stimulation to low blood pressure, constricts blood pressure, regulates blood pressure (sympathetic nervous system)
epinephrine/adrenalin produced
body responses to fear, anger and stress. primarily responsible for fear response, given as a heart stimulant, given to counteract extreme allergic reaction (anaphylactic shock)
norepinephrine/noradrenalin produced
anger response
dilates more than constricts
epinephrine/adrenalin
constricts more than dilates
norepinephrine/noradrenalin
pancreas
dual function - endocrine and exocrine gland
pancreas location
below and behind the stomach
pancreas looks like
a carrot
islets of langerhans
(the endocrine portion of the pancreas) a collection of cells scattered throughout the pancreas that produce insulin and glucagons, important regulators of sugar metabolism. They are endocrine glands because they are ductless
hormones secreted by the pancreas
(2) insulin and glucagon
action of insulin
lowers blood sugar, regulates sugars and starches in the body
action of glucagon
raises blood sugar, (a protein hormone secreted by the pancreas to stimulate the liver to produce glucose)
hyperglycemia
too much sugar
hypoglycemia
too little sugar
ovaries
size of a walnut, found in the lower abdomen
hormones secreted by the ovaries
estrogen and progesterone
action of ovaries
controls development of female reproductive tract, repairs uterus after menstruation and aids in further development of uterine lining
levels of estrogen and progesterone secreted by the ovaries
is controlled by the gonadotropic hormones produced by the pituitary gland
stein levanthal
polycystic ovaries
polycystic ovaries
the ovary does not get all the hormones it needs for eggs to fully mature, cysts form which produce male hormones which further complicate ovarian function
testes
size of a walnut, found in the scotal sac
hormone secreted by the testes
testosterone
action of testosterone
controls male sex characteristics and sperm development
placenta
pancake shaped and found in the uterus during 40 weeks of pregnancy, connects the blood supplies of mother and baby, released at birth
hormones secreted by the placenta
estrogen and progesterone
estrogen secreted by the placenta
further develops breasts for lactation and aids in uterine contractibility
progesterone secreted by the placenta
enables uterus to stretch and contract, affects development of breasts and prepares breasts for lactation
glands that affect hair growth
(4) pituitary, thyroid, adrenals and ovaries
hirsuitism
a medical term for excessive or abnormal hair growth in a male pattern
types of hirsuitism
(3) Iatrogenic, Idiopathic, Familial
iatrogenic hirsuitism
medical term that indicates a recognised cause that has not been established. a uniform growth of fine hairs over the trunk, hands and feet. (unrelated to androgen dependant hair growth)
idiopathic hirsuitism
unknown cause, cannot be explained (shrug)
familial hirsuitism
inherited or ethnically explained
hypertrichosis
excessive and abnormal amount of hair, usually due to abnormal conditions brought about by disease or injury
superfluous
excessive hair which is not abnormal for patients age or sex but it simply undesirable
causes of hair growth
(5) congenital, systemic, topical, emotional stress, medical
congenital causes of hair growth
are predisposed
systemic causes of hair growth
will affect the whole body
normal systemic causes of hair growth
puberty, pregnancy, menopause
abnormal systemic causes of hair growth
glandular problem, defect or disease, tumors, dietary deficiency (ex: anorexia) athletic women with no body fat, or certain acquired infections
topical causes of hair growth
increased blood supply to the surface of the skin (ex: waxing, tweezing, UV rays from sunlight, a cast [broken arm etc.] or xrays)
medical causes of hair growth
mainly steroids or hormonal medication (ex: birth control)
virilization
male characteristics (ex: beard, deepening of voice, hair on sternum, hair on upper arms)
androgens
hormones that produce or stimulate male characteristics
aldosterone
hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex which affects blood pressure and saline balance
bromociptine
a drug which acts on hormone producing tumors to suppress its hormone producing function
calcitonin
hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which controls the levels of calcium and phospherous in the blood
gonads
ovaries and testes
hormones
chemical substances, created by the body, that control numerous body functions
hydrocortisone
a corticosteroid hormone secreted by the adrenal glands cortex region which affects metabolism
isthmus
tissue that connects the two lobes of the thyroid
metabolism
chemical activity that occurs in cells, releasing energy from nutrients or using energy to create other substances such as proteins
polyps
a growth that projects from the lining of mucous membranes, such as the intestines
radiosotope scan
uses radioactive substances introduced into the body to create an image of the functioning adrenal gland
sarcoidosis
a rare inflammation of the lymph nodes and other tissues throughout the body
suprarenal glands
AKA adrenal glands
thyroid scan
uses a radioactive substance to create an image of the thyroid as it is functioning
thyroxine
T4, hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which regulates metabolism
triiodothyronine
T3, hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which regulates metabolism