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What four things does morality involve?

1. Ability to distinguish between right & wrong
2. Ability to act on that distinction
3. Ability to experience pride when we do the right thing
4. Ability to experience guilt, shame or remorse when we do the wrong thing

What are Piagets two perspectives on moral reasoning?

1. Pre-moral period
2. the two moral stages

What is Piaget's pre-moral period? (4)

1. ages 1-3
2. occurs during preschool years
3. children show little awareness or understanding of rules
4. cannot be considered moral beings

Piaget's moral reasoning: Stage 1 (7)

Heteronomous Morality
1. ages 4-7
2. children take rules seriously
3. rules are handed down by parents or authority figures
4. children think of justice & rules as unchangeable properties of the world
5. rules are removed from the control of people
6. they consider the consequences, not the intentions of the actor (Ex. breaking 12 cups accidentally is worse than 1 cup intentionally)
7. believe in the concept of immanent justice = if a rule is broken punishment is given right away

What is immanent justice? (3)

1. if a rule is broken, punishment will be dealt out immediately
2. children will look around when they do something wrong to see if anyone has noticed
3. older children, fear lessons, punishment only occurs if someone notices a transgression

What is transition period? (2)

1. approximately 7-10 years
2. characteristics of both types of morality can be seen

Piaget's moral reasoning: Stage 2 (3)

Autonomous Morality
1. 10 years and older
2. children in late childhood & adolescence come to believe that laws & rules are created by people (its larger than their parents)
3. in judging an action they consider the actor's intention as well as the consequences

Kohlberg's stages of Moral Reasoning:
I Preconventional Morality (2)

1. 4-10 years of age
2. moral reasoning governed by the standards of others

Kohlberg's stages of Moral Reasoning:
I Preconventional Morality -- Stage 1 (2)

1. Pleasure/pain orientation
2. Reason for Moral behavior = stage that behavior that avoids punishment is right (Ex. Fear of punishment)

Kohlberg's stages of Moral Reasoning:
I: Preconventional Morality -- Stage 2

1. cost-benefit orientation
2. Reason for Moral behavior = stage of self-interest. What is right is what benefits the child or gains a favor

Kohlberg's stages of Moral Reasoning:
II Conventional Morality (2)

1. 10-13 years of age
2. child internalizes the standards of others & then judges right & wrong according to those standards

Kohlberg's stages of Moral Reasoning:
II Conventional Morality -- Stage 3 (2)

1. Good child orientation
2. Morality of mutual relationships. Ex. thought of as "good boy" or "nice girl" Act to please others

Kohlberg's stages of Moral Reasoning:
II Conventional Morality -- Stage 4 (3)

1. Law and order orientation
2. Morality of the social system & consciousness
3. Orientation towards authority
a. morality is doing ones duty
b. respecting authority
c. maintaining social order

Kohlberg's stages of Moral Reasoning:
III Postconventional Morality (1)

1. >13 years of age, sometimes young adulthood, others may never achieve

Kohlberg's stages of Moral Reasoning:
III Postconventional Morality -- Stage 5 (3)

1. social contract orientation
2. Morality of the contact = respect for individual rights & freedoms that are democratically agreed upon
3. those who hold power (president, senate) respect the wishes of the majority & the peoples general welfare

Kohlberg's stages of Moral Reasoning:
III Postconventional Morality -- Stage 6 (1)

1. Ethical principle orientation
2. Highest level of morality
3. Morality of universal ethical principles
4. you uphold life, justice
5. acts according to internal standards that may be independent of legal restrictions or the opinions of others

Gilligan: I Orientation towards self-interest (2)

1. women pre-occupied with self interest and survival
2. moral decisions based on what is best for the individual with little consideration for others

Gilligan: I Orientation towards self-interest -- Transition I: selfishness to responsibility (2)

1. beginning to realize what is necessary to do is more important than personal desires
2. less egotistical

Gilligan: II Identification of goodness with responsibility for other (4)

1. need to please and to be liked by others
2. ignore the voice within
3. being good = being responsible = self sacrificing
4. females considered poor at self-nuturing

Gilligan: II Identification of goodness with responsibility for other -- Transition II - conformity to a new inner judgment (2)

1. start to question their own values
2. a shift takes place from wondering whether your concerns are selfish to whether it is more important to consider personal needs and values

Gilligan: III Focus - The dynamics between self and others (4)

1. push for active decisions making
2. do not see themselves as powerless
3. responsibility for what takes place in their lives
4. many women do not achieve this level

What is moral identity?

1. aspects of personality that are present when individuals have moral notions & commitments that are central to their lives
2. violations of these notions & commitments place the integrity of the self at risk

Moral identity is influenced by 3 important values

1. will power
2. integrity
3. moral desire

Moral identity is influenced by 3 important values: Will power (3)

= strategies & meta-cognitive skills
1. Delay gratification
2. Avoid distractions
3. Resist temptations

Moral identity is influenced by 3 important values: Integrity

consists of a sense of responsibility that is present when individuals hold themselves accountable for the consequence of their actions

Moral identity is influenced by 3 important values: Moral desire

motivation & intention to pursue a moral life

What is moral character?

having strength in your convictions, persisting, and overcoming distractions & obstacles

What is moral exemplars? (2)

1. are individuals who lived exemplary lives
2. they have moral personality, identity, character, and a set of virtues that reflect moral excellence & commitment

What is meaningful life? 4 main needs?

- understood in terms of fulfilling 4 main needs including
1. need for PURPOSE
2. Need for VALUES
3. Need for SELF-WORTH
4. Need for SELF-EFFACY (making a difference)

What are the five steps of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

1. Physiological needs = basics, food, water, sleep
2. Safety needs = secure environment
3. Belonging & love needs = need to feel connected & accepted to another person
4. Esteem needs = need to achieve & to gain respect and recognition from others for the work that we do.
5. Self-actualization = realizing your fullest potential. It is the Humanistic line of thought.

What are the 3 temperament classifications?

1. Easy child = positive mood, establish routines & schedules easily, as they grow they adapt easily to new experiences & situations
2. Difficult child = reacts more negatively, darker mood, cry frequently, routines will be irregular, very slow to adapt to change. Ex. Autistic child
3. Slow to warm up child = low energy/activity levels, more hesitant in new situations, don't engage with enthusiasm. Harder to bond with the child.

What is attachment? (2)

- Emotional bond that leads us to want to be with someone & to miss that person when we are separated.
- Gradual process over the 1st year of life

What are 3 general steps of attachment?

1. At birth = infant attracted to all social objects. Prefer humans to inanimate, but still attracted to inanimate
2. Infants gradually learn to discrimination between familiar and unfamiliar people. They will have separation anxiety is familiar person leaves
3. Develop specific attachments. Actively seek contact with specific individuals.

Ainsworth & attachment (6)

- Research strategy was the "strange situation"
- Limitation is that she only used middle class women
- 4 hour sessions every 3 weeks
- Women & kids from birth to 54 weeks
- Longitudinal study
- Believed the pattern follows you through your life

4 attachment patterns developed by Ainsworth?

1. Secure attachment
2. Avoidant attachment = 15% of the study.
3. Resistant attachment = 10% of the study.
4. Disorganized/disoriented attachment = 5% of the study.

What is Secure attachment @ 12 months?

1. @12 months = 70% were securely attached. Infants who seeks interaction, proximity, and physical contact with their caregiver. Play but always know where their base of operation is (base of operation = mom). Venture away to explore but if parent leaves the room they will become upset.

What is Secure attachment @ 6 years?

@ 6years = children who will initiate conversations & interactions with parents & others they are familiar with. Still seek proximity with parents. If left by themselves for a short time they will not be distressed.

What is Avoidant attachment @ 12 months?

@12 months = don't seem to care if the parent is present and/or absent. When someone comes back equally by parent or stranger. If parent comes back into room the child will ignore them.

What is Avoidant attachment @ 6 years?

@ 6 years = child minimizes interaction & contact with the parent. Look away or brief recognition with the parents as required. Only focused on what they are doing.

What is Resistant attachment @ 12 months?

@ 12months = Don't use mom as base of operations. Don't engage their environment. Always stay very close to the parent. They show anger when the parent leaves. When the parent returns there is hitting, biting, and scratching behavior to the parent.

What is Resistant attachment @ 6 years?

@ 6 years old = exaggerated intimacy with the parent. Very dependent on the parent

What is Disorganized/disoriented attachment @ 12 months?

Leads to infant depression. @12 months = unresponsive, sudden emotion. Usually in issues of neglect.

What is Disorganized/disoriented attachment @ 6 years?

@ 6 years old = becomes the parent to the parent. Takes on parental role. They try to embarrass or humiliate the parent as punish for their (parents) bad behavior

Adolescence & Ainsworth: Four steps

1. Secure-autonomous attachment
2. Dismissing-avoidant attachment
3. Pre-occupied ambivalent attachment
4. Unresolved-disorganized attachment

What is Secure-autonomous attachment?

= less likely to engage in problem behaviors, including sex, drugs, and alcohol. They have positive relationships with peers and friends. They are socially competent. High self-esteem, good emotional adjustment and tend to physically healthy.

What is Dismissing-avoidant attachment?

= teens that de-emphasize the importance of attachment. Mutual distancing in the teen-parent relationship. Stronger correlation with violence and aggressive behavior in some teens.

What is Pre-occupied ambivalent attachment?

= kids whose parents are inconsistently available to them. This leads to anger at one end and at the other end is the need for extreme closeness.

What is Unresolved-disorganized attachment ?

= Fear, high levels of fears. Usually end up with some anxiety disorder. They are disoriented/disorganized. Seen in abuse cases. May see this if the parent dies.

Adulthood Attachment Style and relationships (Hazan & Shaver): 3 Steps

1. Secure attachment
2. Avoidant attachment
3. Anxious attachment

What is Secure attachment?

Adulthood Attachment Style and relationships
= positive views of relationships, don't have issues getting close to other people, not overly concerned or stressed about their romantic relationships (no issues of jealousy, secure in their relationships, don't need to check in all the time), they enjoy sexuality in a committed relationship, less likely to have one night stand, if they match well with another secure person they are less likely to divorce

What is Avoidant attachment ?

Adulthood Attachment Style and relationships
= hesitant in getting involved in romantic relationships, issues of trust, heightened fear of being hurt, when they do commit in a relationship they tend to distant themselves.

What is Anxious attachment?

Adulthood Attachment Style and relationships
= demands closeness, very emotional, less trusting, a lot of jealousy and possessiveness. Does not work well with a secure person

What is Matching hypothesis? (2)

- Will likely end up with a partner who is similar to ourselves in physical attractiveness and other needs (needs are typically what attracts people to each other)
- Like needs = upbringing, religion (dealing with children), education level, ethnicity, socioeconomic status

Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love: 3 components of love

1. intimacy (you like the person)
2. passion
3. commitment
- if you have all 3 components = consummate love. Usually happens when you marry
- If you just have intimacy = just started dating

what is Romantic love ?

intimacy & passion

what is Infatuated love?

= passion

what is Fatuous love?

Passion & commitment

what is Companion love?

intimacy & commitment (at some point your relationship flips to this)

what is Empty love?

commitment. Just stay together for other reasons (financial, children)

Family systems theory (4)

- Family seen as a system. Consists of a whole and has all these interrelated parts. If you take one part out it changes the whole dynamics
- Very self organizing
- Families work well to changes to its members and environment
- Family influenced by church, community, etc

what is a nuclear family?

= mother, father, kids

What is extended family?

= grandparents, aunts, uncles, etc.

What are 9 changes to family?

1. More single adults = more single parent families (ex. Older women having kids w/o a man)
2. Postponing marriages
3. Fewer children (economics & who will take care of the elderly)
4. More women are working
5. More divorce
6. More children living in poverty. 1/3 of African Americans and Hispanics live in poverty
7. More re-marriages
8. More multi-generational families
9. Fewer caregivers for aging adults

What 4 Main Styles of parenting & how are they evaluated?

(evaluating the responsiveness/support & demandingness/control of parent)

1. Authoritarian =
2. **Authoritative
3. Permissive or indulgent
4. Rejecting/Neglectful

What is Authoritarian style of parenting?

Very high on control, but low on support.
- very restrictive & very punishing.
- Parents do not give a lot of verbal exchange.
- Instill the respect for hard work & effort.
- This creates in individuals → anxious about social comparison, less initiative, poor communication skills, lack self confidence, more conforming individuals

What is Authoritative style of parenting?

= High support and high control.
- encourages independence in kids
- Rules and expectations in place but allow for verbal exchange (support).
- Open parenting style.
- Kids have → high levels of self-esteem, high emotional adjustment, higher school achievement, have most pro-social behavior (meaning more helpful), better empathy

What is Permissive or indulgent style of parenting?

= high on support, but low on control.
- highly involved with kids
Kids have → little self control, trouble with alcohol & early sexual behavior, school misconduct

What is Rejecting/Neglectful style of parenting?

= low control and low support.
Parent causes = didn't want kids/unprepared, psychological issue with parent (depression/bipolar). Kids have → worst form of attachment, lack self control, poor independence, most behavioral and emotional problems, least pro-social behavior, poor academic achievement, low self-esteem.

What is the Role of grandparents? (4)

- Today know grandparents b/c they are living longer
- On average they are seen once per month
- Grandmothers usually more involved with the care of grandkids. Grandfathers engage in play
- Called upon to be Family National Guard = called upon to help in an emergency situation or tough situation (ex. Divorce, new parenthood, teenage pregnancy)

What are 5 styles of grandparenthood?

1. Formal grandparents = express strong interest in grandchildren but not interested in child rearing. No caregiving role.
2. Fun seeking grandparents = primary source of fun, low discipline
3. Distant grandparents = little contact with grandchildren. Either by choice (don't want to engage) or they were placed in that position (children don't want them involved). Hard on grandparents if not allowed to be with them.
4. Dispensing family wisdom grandparents = their role to provide you with information and advice
5. Surrogate grandparent = the ones that are placed in the role of caregiving

What is Total brain death protocol? (4)

= Massive irreversible loss of functioning.
- Higher brain = cognitive.
- Lower brain = physiological functions (Ex. Medulla = breathing, swallowing. Pons = sleep, wake cycle)
- Higher and lower functioning is gone.

What is Persistent vegetative state?

= higher brain functioning doesn't work, but lower brain functioning does.

4 Tests to determine death in a hospital setting?

1. Totally unresponsive to stimuli, including pain
2. Failure to move for 1 hour & breathe for 3 minutes once off ventilator
3. No reflexes (eye blink, pupillary)
4. Flat line of EEG

Social meanings of death: Puerto Rico

= funerals very intense, emotional, point of hysteria, outward extension of grief

Social meanings of death: Japan

= very restrained in outward expression of grief because they don't want to burden others

Social meanings of death: Irish

= believe the dead deserve a good send off. Drink, music, celebration. It's called an Irish wake.

Kubler-Ross 5 responses to death & dying

1. Denial = no, it can't be me. It's a defense mechanism. They look for a second opinion, trying to get a better answer
2. Anger = why me? Accompanied by resentment, which is towards others who are healthy.
3. Bargaining = is the maintenance of hope. Bargaining with a higher power. Let me live long enough to do something. if they know they won't reach this milestone they have
4. Depression = losing hope. Preparatory depression = preparing everything for their death
5. Acceptance = some may never reach this. Find a sense of peace, calmness. Emotionally exhausted after fighting. Usually have strong love with the family. Family needs to let them know that is okay to go.

Hospice (4)

- Philosophy is caring rather than curing
- Die with dignity
- Free of pain
- Surrounded by loved ones

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