32 terms

Civil Rights History

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Little Rock Nine
Nickname for the group of African American students who began classes at Central High School in 1957 after the US Army was deployed to protect them.
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 Supreme Court ruling that upheld the constitutionality of segregation.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 Supreme Court ruling that racially segregated schools violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
I Have a Dream Speech
Common name for the speech given during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom by Martin Luther King, Jr.
19th Amendment
Constitutional amendment that granted women the right to vote.
13th Amendment
Constitutional amendment that made slavery unconstitutional in the United States.
14th Amendment
Constitutional amendment that grants citizenship to "all persons born" in the United States.
Montgomery, Alabama
City where Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus, thus sparking a boycott and a court case that ended with the Supreme Court ruling that bus segregation was unconstitutional.
Birmingham, Alabama
City where the Ku Klux Klan bombed the 16th Street Baptist Church in an act of terrorism which killed four girls.
Congress of Racial Equality
What does the acronym CORE stand for?
Boynton v. Virginia
1960 Supreme Court ruling that declared segregation in interstate bus and rail stations unconstitutional.
Freedom Riders
Group of volunteers organized by CORE to ride through the South on interstate buses in an attempt to desegregate bus stations and force the Federal government to enforce the recent Supreme Court ruling that such segregation was unconstitutional.
Emmett Till
Boy from Chicago brutally killed while visiting relatives in Money, Mississippi after speaking to a white woman. His brutal killing, open casket funeral, and the quick exoneration of his murderers by an all white jury shined a public spotlight on the evils of Jim Crow.
16th Street Baptist Church
Church blown up in a terrorist attack by the KKK on September 15, 1963, killing four teenage girls (Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson and Carol Denise McNair).
Dred Scott v. Sandford
1857 Supreme Court ruling that stated that people of African ancestry, whether free or enslaved, were not and could never be citizens of the United States.
Gideon v. Wainwright
1963 Supreme Court ruling that defendants have a constitutional right to an attorney, even if they cannot afford one.
Loving v. Virginia
1967 Supreme Court ruling that struck down state laws against interracial marriage and declared marriage to be a fundamental right.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
What does SNCC stand for?
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
What does NAACP stand for?
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
What does SCLC stand for?
Montgomery Bus Boycott
What event led to the creation of the SCLC?
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Who was the first president of the SCLC?
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, what act outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin?
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson, what act outlawed racial discrimination in voting?
Malcolm X
Name the civil rights leader and Nation of Islam member who believed that African Americans should fight for justice and equality using any means necessary (including violence). He was assassinated in 1965.
Medgar Evers
Name the World War II veteran and NAACP field secretary who was assassinated in Jackson, Mississippi in 1963. He had been working to end Jim Crow segregation before being murdered by a member of the local White Citizens' Council.
Thurgood Marshall
Who was the first African American member of the U.S. Supreme Court?
Sandra Day O'Connor
Who was the first female member of the U.S. Supreme Court?
Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 (also known as the Snyder Act)
Signed into law by President Calvin Coolidge, what act granted full U.S. citizenship to Native Americans?
Greensboro, North Carolina
In what city in 1960 did four African American college students begin a sit-in at a Woolworth's segregated lunch counter, thus inspiring similar protests across the South?
James Meredith
Name the first African American student to attend the University of Mississippi. Rioting racist mobs protesting his enrollment caused President Kennedy to send in 5,000 troops to restore order.
24th Amendment
What amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1964, abolished poll taxes? Poll taxes were one of the methods used to deny minorities their voting rights prior to the passage of this amendment.