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MTEL Communication & Literacy Skills: Writing Subtest Review
Terms in this set (86)
a phrase that is related to a sentence in meaning, but has no grammatical relationship to the phrase. Ex. "The movie over......,"
a noun that names a quality or mental concept
the subject performs the action
the noun, usually before the pronoun, that the pronoun replaces.
a group of related words containing both a subject and a predicate.
compares two persons, places or things. It is usually followed by "than". ex. colder than
a word often used to complete the meaning of an intransitive verb without receiving the intransitive verb's action and with copulative (linking) verbs to describe state of being.
a noun that names a member of a class; a group of people, places, or things that is physical, visible, and tangible
a word used to connect grammatically equal elements. These include and, but, or, nor, for, so, and yet.
a noun that can be maid plural via changing the ending, usually by adding "s"
A modifiying phrase or clause that does not sensibly modify any word or words in a sentence. Usually the actor is missing from the sentence. (Ex. "Reading a book, the black cat crawled onto my lap." The cat was not reading the book. To fix: add an actor to the sentence.)
a noun that points out a specific person, place, or thing without naming it (Ex: this, that, these, those)
a word that receives a direct action from the subject of the sentence. Answers the question what or whom.
an instance in which clause elements are omitted if the context makes clear what is being indicated. ex. Jessica had three dollars; Janie, one.
an , an expression having a special meaning different from the usual meanings of the words (example - "hit the road")
a pronoun that does not refer to a specific, person, place, thing, or idea (Ex: everyone, everything, everybody, anybody, many, most, few, each, some, someone, all, nothing, nobody, and no one)
The indicative mood is used to make a statement or ask a question. Most sentences are in the indicative mood.
-Do you like to play baseball?
-I learned to play last year.
-Baseball is my favorite game.
a word that receives the action of the subject indirectly. ex. She gave Bill a present.
the basic form of a verb, usually preceded by the preposition "to"
used to express stong emotion or surprise. "oh" or "well"
a pronoun that poses a question. ex. what, which, who, whom, and whose
a sentence that asks a question
a verb that does not take an object. ex. lie, arrive, went
a modifier that is not placed near near the word it modifies.
nominal of a sentence
a word or group of words that can function as a noun
when a noun or pronoun is the subject of a verb
a noun that cannot be made plural by changing the ending, usually by adding "s". (Ex: milk, juice, music, art, love, happiness, furniture, luggage, rice, sugar, electricity)
a group of words (usually two) that functions as a single part of speech
when a noun or pronoun is used as the direct object, indirect object, or object of a preposition
phrase that contains a participle and its modifiers and functions as an adjective to modify a noun or pronoun, (Ex: They arrested the man DRIVING THE CAR.)
Verb that can be used as a adjective.
Present ends in -ing
-----*Past ends in ed.-d,-t,-en,-n (The TERRIFYING movie was rated "R"
passive voice sentence
a sentence in which the subject receives the action
an adjective used when there is no comparison being made. (Ex: This is a HOT day.)
the action of the sentence or what is being said about the subject
a verb that forms the past tense by adding "ed" to the basic verb
a pronoun that relates one part of a sentence to a word in another part of the sentence. (Ex: that, which, who, whom, whose)
An instance in which the words that make up an infinitive are separated by one or more words. (Ex: to boldly go)
An uncommon construction used to express with exactitude how a verb usage is to be interpreted.
a word which joins together a dependent clause and an independent clause. Examples are although, because, while, etc.
compares three or more persons, places or things.
a verb that takes an object to complete its meaning
words that appear to be verbs, but are acting as some other part of speech. (EX: READING and WRITING are fundamental skills that all of us should possess.)
WHILE refer to time and should not be used as a substitute for ALTHOUGH, AND, or BUT
INCORRECT: While I'm usually interested in Fellini movies, I'd rather not go tonight.
CORRECT: Although I'm usually interested in Fellini movies, I'd rather not go tonight.
WHERE refere to a place and should not be used as a substitute for THAT.
INCORRECT: We read in the paper where they are making great strides in DNA research.
CORRECT: We read in the paper that they are making great strides in DNA research.
After words like REASON and EXPLANATION, use THAT not BECAUSE.
INCORRECT: His explanation for his tardiness was because his alarm did not go off.
CORRECT: His explanation for his tardiness was that his alarm did not go off.
Present Perfect Tense
for an action that began in the past but continues into the future. (Ex: I HAVE LIVED here all my life.)
Past Perfect Tense
for an earlier action that is mentioned in a later action. (Ex: Cindy ate the apple that she HAD PICKED. - First she picked it, then she ate it.)
Future Perfect Tense
for an action that will have been completed at a specific future time (Ex: By May, I SHALL HAVE GRADUATED.)
for an action that occurs at the same time as the verb. (Ex: SPEEDING down the interstate, I saw a cop's flashing lights.
for action that occurred before the main verb. (Ex: HAVING READ the directions, I started te test.
to express a wish or state condition contrary to fact. (EX: IT IT WERE NOT raining, we could have a picnic.)
Use THAT after
verbs like REQUEST, RECOMMEND, SUGGEST, ASK, REQUIRE, and INSIST and after such expressions as IT IS IMPORTANT and IT IS NECESSARY. (EX: It is necessary THAT all papers BE SUBMITTED on time.)
Unusual Single Verbs:
Unusual Plural Verbs:
Nominative (Subject) Pronoun Case:
Objective (Object) Pronoun Case:
Use nominative case for
the subject of an elliptical clause
(Molly is more experience than HE.)
the subject of a subordinate clause
(Robert is the driver WHO reported the accident.)
the complement of an infinitive with no expressed subject
(I would not want to be HE.)
Use objective case for
for the object of a preposition
(Just between you and ME, I'm bored.)
for the appositive of a direct object
(The committee elected two delegates, Barbara and ME.)
When a conjunction connects two pronouns or a pronoun and a noun, remove the "and" and the other pronoun or noun to determine the correct pronoun form.
Mom gave Tom and myself a piece of cake.
Mom gave Tom and I a piece of cake.
Mom gave Tom and me a piece of cake.
CORRECT: Mom gave Tom and me a piece of cake.
The only pronouns that are acceptable after BETWEEN and other prepositions are...
me, her, him, them, and whom
When deciding between WHO and WHOM...
try substituting HE for WHO and HIM for whom
When an antecedent is one of dual gender (student, singer, artist etc) use HIS OR HER or change the antecedent to a plural noun to avoid using the sexist, singular pronoun HIS.
INCORRECT: Everyone hopes that he will win the lottery.
CORRECT: Most people hope they will win the lottery.
WHO refers to
WHICH and THAT refer to
things and places
Singular indefinite pronouns
another, anyone, anybody, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, other, somebody, someone, something
Plural indefinite pronouns
both, few, many, others, several
Prepositions for Time, Place, and Introducing Objects (10)
on, at, in, since, for, by, from-to, from-until, during, within
Prepositions Indicating Place or Location
in, inside, on, at, over, above, beneath, underneath, below, near, next to, by, between, among, opposite etc
Prepositions Introducing the Objects of Verbs (3)
at, of, for
(Ex: glance at, look at, approve of, smells of, call for, look for)
Prepositions Indicating Direction (5)
to, onto, into, on, in
Good vs. Well
Good is an adjective
(The quiche tastes good.)
Well is and adverb or an adjective meaning "in good health".
(He plays well. - Adverb
My mother is not well. - Adjective)
Bad vs Badly
BAD is an adjective used after sentence verbs (look, smells, tastes, etc) or linking verbs (is, am, are, was, were)
I feel BAD about the delay
BADLY is an adverb
It doesn't her very BADLY
Sort Of vs. Kind Of
often misused instead of "rather" or "somewhat"
INCORRECT: Jan was KIND OF saddened by the results of the test.
CORRECT: Jan was SOMEWHAT saddened by the results of the test.
It is not necessary to use a comma with a short sentence
INCORRECT: In January, she will go to Switzerland.
CORRECT: In January she will go to Switzerland.
Use a semicolon to separate two independent clauses connected by a conjunctive adverb.
INCORRECT: He took great care with his work, therefore, he was very successful.
CORRECT: He took great care with his work; therefore, he was very successful.
DO NOT use a colon after a verb
INCORRECT: My favorite holidays are: Christmas, New Year's Eve, and Halloween.
CORRECT: My favorite holidays are Christmas, New Year's Eve, and Halloween.
DO NOT use a colon after a preposition
INCORRECT: I enjoy different ethnic foods such as: Greek, Chinese, and Italian.
CORRECT: I enjoy different ethnic foods such as Greek, Chinese, and Italian.
When quoting several paragraphs, place quotation marks at...
the beginning of EACH paragraph and at the END of the last paragraph.
Capitalize geological periods
late Pleistocence times
(*notice only the main period is capitalized NOT the other descriptor)
Reliable Nature brought her promised Spring.
Bring on Melancholy in his sad might.
She believed that Love was the answer to all her problems.
Capitalize historical periods
World War 1
Age of Louis XIV
(*notice the WHOLE period is capitalized)
Capitalize Equatorial Current
Most important words of titles are capitalized. Conjunctions and short prepositions are not (unless they are the first or last word)
A Man for All Seasons
Of Mice and Men
Rise of the West
Do NOT capitalize compass directions or seasons
north, south, west, east, spring, autumn, winter, summer
Capitalize political groups and philosophies
(* note only the GROUP is capitalized not the following descriptor)
Do NOT capitalize systems of government or individual adherents to a philosophy
five Words Weak Writers Use
you, we, they, this, it
Use ACTIVE voice when writing
PASSIVE: The winning field goal was kicked by her.
(Stressed the action)
ACTIVE: She kicked the winning field goal.
(Stresses the actor)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
MTEL Communication & LIteracy Skills Test: Reading…
MTEL Communication and Literacy Vocabulary A-C
MTEL Communication and Literacy Vocab D-H
MTEL Communication and Literacy S-Z
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