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Enviromental Science Online 5, 6, & 7
Terms in this set (98)
Relative to agriculture, insects are usually ________.
Essential pollinators and predators for sustainable systems.
What is true about GM crops?
The United States leads the world in land area dedicated to GM crops.
A country with ________ is not expected to grow quickly in the near future.
High female literacy.
________ is the world's most populous nation, home to ________ of the people living on Earth.
Replacement fertility ________.
Is equal to 2.1 in stable populations.
Declining death rates due to increased food production and improved medical care while birth rates remain high is characteristic of the ________ stage.
The O horizon is ________.
Primarily composed of organic materials.
Shelter belts are to ________ as terraces are to ________.
Wind erosion; Water erosion.
We lose 5 to 7 million ha of productive cropland per year to ________.
Erosion, over irrigation, and other factors.
Which of the following requires the most feed to produce 1 kg of protein?
Environmental policy aims to_________.
Promote fairness among people and groups in the use of resources.
Environmental damage from industry or land development has traditionally been labeled as______ by economists.
The first national park in the world was
Cap and Trade is a system that _______.
Permits industries that pollute under the federal cap to sell credits to industries that pollute over the cap.
Enforcement and elaboration of U.S. statutory laws is given to ______.
What is millinery
A hat manufacturer.
what species of birds were especially harmed for the plumage trade?
Egrets and other wading birds.
how did Harriet Hemingway and Minna Hall organize a revolt?
-Sent out circulars.
-Encouraged other society women to join a society for the protection of birds.
-Oranized a boycott of the hat makers.
-Encouraged other women to stop wearing hats with feathers.
ALL OF THE ABOVE
The Weeks-McClean Act was challenged in court but a subsequent piece of legislation was upheld and is still in effect today and is known as the
Migratory Bird Treaty Act.
land used to raise plants for human use
practice of raising crops and livestock
for human use and consumption
land used for grazing
Rangeland or pasture
Land devoted to agriculture covers ____ % of Earth's
"Eating is an agricultural act."
There are two spiritual dangers in not owning a farm.
One is the danger of supposing that breakfast comes from
the grocery, and the other that heat comes from the
- _________ __________
agriculture using human and animal
muscle power, hand tools, and simple machines (subsistence
using large-scale mechanization and
fossil fuels to boost yields
a decline in quality and
the base geologic material of soil
solid rock comprising the Earth's crust
processes that form soil
each layer of soil
of soil as a whole
move down through horizons
inorganic and organic
material most nutritive for plants
a general deterioration of land,
decreasing its productivity and biodiversity
removal of material from one place to another
- By wind or water
arrival of eroded material at a new location
a loss of
more than 10% productivity
+ erosion caused "black
blizzards" of sand
operate with federal direction,
authorization, and funding
perpendicular across a hill
crops from one year to the next
cut into steep hillsides
different crops in alternating
rows of trees planted along
edges of fields
reduces the amount of tilling
the soil even less
providing water to support
the buildup of
salts in surface soil layers
substances containing essential nutrients
mined or synthetically
manufactured mineral supplements
the remains or wastes of
produced when decomposers break down
too many animals eat too much of the
____% of the world's rangeland is classified as
degraded, costing $_____ billion/year
applying the principles of population
ecology to the study of change in human populations
a model of economic and
affects the number and spacing of
studies how people use resources to provide
goods and services in the face of demand
a social system that converts resources into goods and services
manufactured materials that are bought
work done for others as a form of business
people get their daily needs
directly from nature or their own production
buyers and sellers interact
to determine prices and production of goods and services
Capitalist market economy
the government determines
how to allocate resources
Centrally planned economy
governments intervene in the market
essential services support the life
that makes economic activities possible
believed that self-interested behavior could
when people pursue economic
self-interest in a competitive marketplace
___ of ___ global ecosystem services are being degraded
or used unsustainably
costs of a proposed action are
compared to benefits that result from the action
affect people other than buyers or sellers
civilizations cannot overcome
Ecological economists advocate
have high population growth and inefficient resource use
values (e.g., ecological, cultural,
spiritual) not included in the price of a good or service
are misled into thinking
companies are acting more
sustainably than they are
occurs when markets ignore
a formal set of general plans and principles to
address problems and guide decision making
governmental laws, regulations, orders,
incentives, and practices to advance societal welfare
pertains to human interactions
with the environment
those that would cheat
requires polluters to
resources will become overused and degraded
"tragedy of the commons"
specific rules to achieve objectives of
broadly written statutory laws
Prohibits denying "equal protection of its laws"
Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Impact Statement
tax environmentally harmful activities and
the party that pollutes is held
responsible for covering the costs of its impacts
a government giveaway of cash or resources to
encourage a particular industry or activity
a government-created market in
permits for an environmentally harmful activity
government sets pollution levels ("caps")
Cap-and-trade emissions trading system
tells consumers which brands use
environmentally benign processes
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