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EXSC 387 Exam 2
Terms in this set (53)
systolic (diastolic) blood pressure levels:
- early high blood pressure?
normal = <120 (<80)
early high blood pressure = 120-139 (80-89)
high = 140-159 (90-99)
dangerous = >160 (>100)
- borderline high?
- high risk?
normal = <200
borderline high = 200-239
high risk = >240
Body Mass Index (BMI)
- ideal weight/low risk?
- overweight/moderate risk?
- obese/high risk?
- underweight = <19
- ideal weight/low risk = 19-24
- overweight/moderate risk = 25-29
- obese/high risk = 30+
excess body weight and life span
- US mean?
- US mean:
- men = 74.4
- women = 79.8
- men = 71.1
- women = 76.5
- men = 67.3
- women = 72.7
1% decrease in total cholesterol = ?
2-3% decrease in heart disease risk
modifiable risk factors (% of Americans with this risk factor)
cigarette/tobacco smoking = 22%
high blood pressure (>140/>90) = 26%
high blood cholesterol (>240) = 17%
physical inactivity = 39%
obesity (BMI >30) = 31%
diabetes = 7%
- the build up of fatty plaque in the inner layer of the artery wall
- contributes to 85% of CVD
- can also be the cause of strokes by blocking blood vessels to the brain
Metabolic Syndrome or Syndrome X
- characterized by:
- insulin resistance
- obesity due to abdominal fat
- high blood cholesterol
- high blood pressure
- caused by a hyperactive fork and a hypoactive foot
leading causes of death (by age)
35-44 = cancer
45-54 = cancer
55-64 = cancer
65-74 = cancer
75-84 = heart disease
85+ = heart disease
causes of cancer deaths in the US (%)
tobacco = 30%
nutrition/obesity = 30%
inactivity = 5%
genetics = 5%
viruses/biological agents = 5%
reproductive factors = 3%
alcohol = 3%
socioeconomic factors = 3%
environmental pollution = 2%
ionizing/UV radiation = 2%
colorectal cancer and diet
- red meat
- processed meat
- body fatness
- abdominal fatness
- foods containing vitamin D47
- T = primary tumor
- N = lymph node involvement
- M = distant metastases
- I = early stage
- IV = late stage
lifetime risk of developing cancer
men = 1 in 2
women = 1 in 3
cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs
cancer that begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue
antioxidants/antiproliferative properties (fruits and vegetables)
- antioxidants = cranberry
- antiproliferative = cranberry
- antioxidants = red pepper
- antiproliferative = spinach
common weight loss strategies
1. eat fewer calories
2. eat less fat
3. exercise more
4. skip meals
5. eat food supplements
6. join a weight loss program
7. take weight loss pills
most effective weight loss goal = ?
10% of starting weight
non-exercise activity thermogenesis
- the energy expended for everything we do that is not sleeping, eating or sports-like exercise
energy balance equation
calories in = calories out
1 in 3 children are overweight (85-95th percentile) or obese (95th+ percentile)
fasting plasma glucose:
- >126 mg/dl = diabetes
- 100-125 mg/dl = pre-diabetes
- <100 mg/dl = normal fasting glucose
diagnosis comes after confirmation on a different day
symptoms of diabetes
- blurred vision
- slowed healing
- increased risk of infection
- sex organs
- blood vessels
type I diabetes
- beta cells in pancreas are mostly or entirely destroyed by the body's own immune system.
- This person needs insulin injections.
type II diabetes
- beta cells make insulin, but the person's tissues are not sensitive enough to the hormone and use it inefficiently.
- evidence indicates that 90% of type II diabetes can be attributed to poor lifestyles: obesity, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, smoking
- In the US approx 85% of adults are obese at time of diagnosis
T/F- Atherosclerosis contributes to about 58% of CVD?
false- atherosclerosis contributes to about 85% of CVD
The primary cause of CVD is
coronary heart disease (CHD)
risk factors for CHD:
-high blood pressure
- high cholesterol
- obesity (BMI)
- diabetes mellitus
- current smoking
- other lipids
- physical inactivity
- renal and kidney diseases
- metabolic syndrome
- poor nutrition
If all forms of major CVD were eliminated, total life expectancy would increase nearly ___ years. If all forms of cancer were eliminated, the increase is just ___ years.
1. 7 years
2. 3 years
Research has shown that atherosclerosis can be reversed over a fairly long period of time by modifying what particular lifestyle factor?
Which risk factor has the greatest potential for reducing risk of heart disease?
What percent decrease in risk for heart disease could be expected if a person decreased their total cholesterol 10%?
- for every 1% drop in cholesterol there is a 2-3% decrease in heart disease risk
T or F According to some research, the more food a person is served the more they tend to eat
A diet characterized by higher intake of vegetables, fruit, legumes, whole grains, fish, and poultry is commonly termed a...
In the Nurses Health Study (NHS), population attributable risk for coronary disease went from 64% for women who had 4 low-risk factors to 82% for women who had 5 low-risk factors. What additional risk factor was thought to contribute to the increase in population attributable risk?
moderate alcohol consumption
In this study (NHS) what were at least 3 of the 5 components of a low-risk profile?
- moderate alcohol consumption
- BMI < 25
- non smoking
- good diet
When studied, which drink was most effective at inhibiting atherosclerosis and improving lipids in hamsters when polyphenol dose was normalized?
The French have low coronary heart disease mortality with high fat consumption; this epidemiological anomaly is known as the...
Which disease contributes to more years of life lost?
T or F The lifetime risk for developing cancer is greater for women than men
men = 1 in 2
women = 1 in 3
Which is the most common cancer in men?
Which is the most common cancer in women?
What is it called when a tumor/cancer migrates to a distant site from its origin?
What is it called when a tumor creates its own blood supply?
What is the tumor classification for cancer that begins in the skin or tissues that line or cover internal organs?
What is the tumor classification for cancer that begins in bone, muscle, or other connective tissue?
Which cancer has the strongest association with physical inactivity?
What is the single most significant risk for lung cancer?
Which is the most lethal cancer for men and women?
What percentile for BMI would classify a child or adolescent as obese?
> 95th percentile
Even though diabetes in children is not considered "high" diabetes has increased by what factor in the past 2 decades?
more than 10
What is the term used to describe the increased risk of obesity in offspring through non-genetic factors?
What could be the cause of a shortened life expectancy by mid-century?
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