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APES Chapter 21
Terms in this set (72)
The current interglacial period could last for how long?
15,000 more years
Direct temperature records go back to when?
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - formed in 1988 to evaluate possible future climate changes
Example of consensus science
Earth's average surface temperature
15 degrees Celsius
Two major greenhouse gases
Water vapor, CO2
What greenhouse gas has correlated closest to tropospheric temperature variations over the past 160,000 years?
Ways humans contribute to greenhouse gases
Burning fossil fuels, farming, using inorganic fertilizers (N2O released in rice cultivation), burning forests, deforestation/clearing grasslands (release CO2 and N2O), raising cattle and other livestock (methane)
What country releases more greenhouse gases per person than any other?
The US has ___% of the world's population but emits ___% of greenhouse gases.
What greenhouse gas is at the same level it was 100,000 years ago?
Where does majority of CH4 released in the US come from?
Since 1861, the earth has warmed ___ degrees centigrade, with the most increases occurring since _____.
Since 1861, sea levels have risen ___ meters (___ inches).
Reflectivity of different parts of Earth's surface
Albedo effect percentages (average, water, snow)
Water at noon: 5%
What two gases are NOT greenhouse gases?
Name four common greenhouse gases.
CO2, methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Methane makes up ___% of total greenhouse gases.
CO2 rises and falls with northern hemisphere seasons: "Earth breathing"
Coupled global circulation models
Series of information sets that develop global climate models
Testing what can reveal climate changes?
Temperatures, PSI, concentrations of greenhouse gases, RHI
One of largest contributors of CO2 in atmosphere
Process of making cement
If the Greenland ice pack melts completely, how much would sea levels rise?
7 meters (23 feet)
Three major findings of 2001 IPC report
Latest climate models match records of global temp changes since 1850 very closely
Most of warming over last 50 years attributable to humans
Earth's mean surface temp will likely increase 1.4-5.8 degrees C between 2000 and 2100
Who is most at risk from climate change?
Signs of climate change
Increase in tropical diseases/migrations to higher latitudes, coral bleaching, retreating glaciers, northward migration of warmer-climate fish
Oceans and ocean currents
Oceans absorb CO2 and heat, currents store and transfer them (may contribute to significant alterations in temp patterns in northern hemisphere)
Changes in salinity over last 40 years
Tropical oceans are saltier, polar oceans are less salty
One of largest unknowns in global warming
Change in cloud distribution
Factors that affect the net result of cloud cover
Amount of water in troposphere, thickness of clouds, coverage, altitudes, size and number of water droplets, ice crystals in clouds
Difference between high/thin clouds and low/thick clouds in terms of global warming
High, thin clouds heat Earth
Low, thick clouds cool Earth (high albedo effect)
Aerosols/particulates tend to do what in the atmosphere?
Cool the earth (although black carbon aerosols may be responsible for 15-30% of global warming)
Two ways pollution dims sunlight
By reflecting sunlight back into space or causing more water droplets to condense/clouds to form
Methane gas released from where can accelerate global warming?
Bogs/wetlands, methane hydrates under arctic permafrost (oxidized)
Global warming most affects what type of organism?
Ecosystems most likely to be disrupted by global warming
Coral reefs, polar seas, coastal wetlands, arctic and alpine tundra, high-elevation mountaintops
Trees can migrate how fast?
5 miles per decade
7 effects of a warmer climate
Food production decreases
Sea levels rise
Tropical diseases spread
Deaths from lack of food increase
Heat-related deaths increase
UV radiation increases
Sea levels rising would affect how much of the world?
1/3 (most people live on coasts)
Name some low-altitude areas that could be destroyed by rising sea levels
East coast of the US
Agriculture lands in India
Economists and policymakers disagree over what three things?
Whether or not economic costs are higher than economic benefits, if developed, developing, or both countries should take responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions, and whether or not actions to reduce emissions should be voluntary or required
Four approaches to climate change (options)
Do more research before acting
Act now to reduce risks of climate change (precautionary principle)
Act now as part of a no-regrets strategy
Three major strategies for slowing global warming
Improve energy efficiency to reduce fossil fuel use
Shift from carbon-based fossil fuels to a mix of carbon-free renewable energy resources
Sequester or store as much CO2 as possible in soil, vegetation, underground, and in deep ocean
Ways to store CO2 in biomass
Letting fields lie fallow
Pump it deep underground or in deep ocean (geoengineering)
Add iron to oceans to increases algae numbers to remove CO2 (temporary, long-term effects unknown)
Three ways governments can decrease fossil fuel use
Carbon taxes on fuel use
Subsidies for energy-efficient, carbon-free technologies
Technology transfers between countries
Quickest/cheapest/most efficient way to reduce buildup of CO2 in atmosphere
Increase energy efficiency
Global emissions trading program
A potential way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions - Global, national limits on emissions, selling/buying credits, earning credits through increased efficiency, etc.
Is it cheaper to slow and adapt to global warming or to deal with effects later?
Slow and adapt
Developed in 1997 - required 39 countries to cut emissions of some gases by 5.2% below 1990 levels by 2012 - allows emissions trading, allows forested countries to get a break on quotas - ratified by 120+ countries by 2004 - not ratified by US
1992 Earth Summit in Rio
100+ countries agreed to reduced greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2000
4 countries that release the most greenhouse gases
US, China, Russia, India
Developing countries contribute ___% of global emissions with a doubling time of ___ years.
Current emissions of greenhouse gases must be cut by at least ___% by 2018 to stabilize concentrations at current levels.
CFC timeline (aka ODC, ODS)
Discovered in 1930
Found to be stable, nontoxic to humans, chemically unreactive, insoluble in water.
Discovered to be deleting the ozone in 1974 (Rowland, Molina)
Manufacturing stopped in 1988
Why are CFCs so destructive to the ozone layer?
Over 11-20 years they are lifted into the stratosphere by convection currents and air mixing. They break down under UV radiation and release chlorine, fluorine, bromine, and iodine. Those chemicals break apart ozone molecules, and the CFC molecules can stay in the atmosphere for 65-385 years.
When is the thinning of the ozone hole over Antarctica the worst?
October (thins August through November)
1 chlorine atom can convert at least _____ ozone molecules to molecular oxygen.
The ozone over Antarctica is reduced by how much each year?
40-50%, on average
When will the worst ozone thinning occur? (years)
Primary causes of squamous cell and basal cell skin cancers
Exposure to UV-B radiation
Type of skin cancer that can occur anywhere on the body - kills 25% of victims within 5 years
Women who use tanning parlors at least once a month increase their chances of developing melanoma by ___%.
___% of sunlight's melanoma-causing effect may come from exposure to UV-A (not blocked by window glass).
Three ways to prevent global warming (PPT slide)
Cut fossil fuel use
Improve energy efficiency/shift to renewable energy
Slow population growth
Study literally all the PPT slides
Seriously! You've gotta do it!
What type of UV radiation does the ozone layer block best?
1987 - goal was to cut emissions of CFCs by 35% between 1989 and 2000
Amendment to Montreal Protocol - accelerated phase out of key ozone-depleting chemicals
Ozone depletion cooling the troposphere has disguised ___% of global warming.
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