BIO 401 Final
Terms in this set (83)
the 7 key principles of reserve design?
1. Bigger is better than smaller.
2. 1 big is better than several small. *
3. Closer is better than spread out.
4. Clumped is better than linear.
5. Connected is better than not.
6. Circular is better than linear.
7. Buffer zones are better than not
how the key principles relate back to the landscape processes that affect biodiversity
lower extinction rates and higher species diversity
what principle is the most controversial
1 big is better than several small
SLOSS= Single Large or Several Small- which is better?
Role of Core?
The core reserve in which an animal lives, its habitat.
role of Corridor?
A viable connection between two cores.
role of Buffer?
reduces edge effects. used to protect the cores.
benefits landscape ecosystem conservation. (Coarse Filter Scale). Species that requires the most amount of resources and attention to conserve. ensuring their conservation. They provide a protective "umbrella" for all the other species in the ecosystem.
What taxon are the usual umbrella species?
Large mammalian predators:
a) Large body size
b) Low density
c) Highly mobile
d) Predators are at the "top of the food chain," and are highly vulnerable to changes in ecosystems. Maintaining large predators requires maintaining sufficient populations of prey species and environments.
The public is very charismatic about this species.
Flagship species may or may not be keystone species and may or may not be good indicators of biological process.
An indicator species is a species or group of species chosen as an indicator of, or proxy for, the state of an ecosystem or of a certain process within that ecosystem.
usually top predators or ecosystem engineers. a species on which other species in an ecosystem largely depend, such that if it were removed the ecosystem would change drastically.
What kind of ecosystems or community types are generally over-represented in reserves?
Tundra, Boreal Forests, Temperate Conifer Forests, Montane grasslands and shrublands, Deserts and Shrublands. (ecosystems that arent productive for human use)
Temperate grasslands/ shrublands, mediterrean forests, tropical broadleaf forests, temperate mixed forests (land good for human production) alot of tropical forests/grasslands
How does this relate to priorities for conservation?
Higher priority for inclusion of new reserves for under represented communities
4 key concepts in reserve design and prioritization:
efficiency, comprehensiveness, complementarity, redundancy.
What is "Gap analysis" and why is it done?
involves the comparison of actual performance with potential or desired performance.
Answers: How well do existing reserves contain the resources we want to protect? Do we need new reserves? where? how big? how many?
first Gap Analysis: Where? What taxa? How done?
eastern SD? ecoregion plant communities? IDFN
What are the 3 basic steps in a Gap Analysis?
1. Map the biodiversity
2. Map land ownership and
3. Develop priority areas for
What is "Yellowstone to Yukon" network? What's the goal? What species is the focus?
Network that extends the range of grizzlies, used for preservation of grizzily bears
Madagascar nature reserve planning: What was the overall goal? the methodology? constraints? what focal taxa were used and why?
Developed a Network of Nature Reserves for Madagascar. Define areas that need the most conservation. high-resolution multitaxonomic approaches. constraints including limited data or access to data on species distributions and computational constraints on achieving high-resolution analyses over large geographic areas. Ants, butterflys, plants, lemurs, geckos, frogs,
What % of US land area is federally managed?
29% of the land area of the US
What are the top land-management agencies? Know top 5 agencies, and top 3 in order.
Bureau of Land Management 104.4 million
US Forest Service 78.1 million
US Fish and Wildlife Service 38.8 million
National Park Service 33.8 million
Department of Defense 12.1 million
What part or region of the country has the most federal land?
great plains. western US. areas operated by the BLM.
What US state has the most federal land (as a proportion of the state's area)?
What proportion of California is federally-owned land?
What are the main management priorities for national parks? Know which agency manages each of these.
national forests / grasslands?
conservation- multiple use, benefit the most amount of people for the most amount of time. NFS, BLM
primary management objective is for wildlife conservation. US Fish and WIldlife service
"an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor and does not remain.
No specific Agency
Which agency manages the most imperiled species on its lands?
Which agency manages the highest density (# imperiled species / area of land managed)?
trying to bring an ecosystem back to a previous state (restoration ecology). some lands come back naturally through succession while others dont. the others need restoration.
looking the same
you want your ecosystem to look the same as a previous state. this is done by looking at reference states.
vs "acting the same"
let the ecosystem function the same, example fire regime replication, ecological process replication etc.
Be familiar with the Elwha Dam removal case study.
Olympia NP. 2011-12. no fish latter, salmon couldn't pass. silt load is a huge problem, sedimentation concern downstream. disassembled in sections to bleed out the sediment.
Ultimate goals (2) of recovery (Why is "preventing extinction" not good enough?)
a) self-sustaining wild populations; and
b) resumed their ecological roles: predators,
prey, nutrient cycling, etc.
They are fully functional members of their
ecological communities. ultimate goal must be recovery.
What are the key steps in recovering an imperiled species?
1. Document that the species is truly declining
2. Study its basic ecology and natural history
3. Identify the factors causing its decline
4. Address or correct these factors
What kind of ecological information must be learned about an imperiled species to successfully manage it?
a. Distribution and geographic range
b. Demographic information:
c. Resource utilization: habitat use, food, other critical resources
How do you determine the factors causing a species' decline / limiting factors? (4 step process)
1. Brainstorm all likely potential causes, focusing on the
usual suspects: Habitat destruction Exotic species Over-harvesting Disease
2. Measure each factor where the species still persists
and where it has been eradicated or highly reduced.
3. Develop hypotheses for the causes of the decline.
4. Test hypotheses using manipulations or experiments.
???What are the 2 main intensive management approaches to increase population size,
double clutching, head starting. other two are captive breading and cross fostering- not as successful.
???which approach is usually more practical? Why?
double clutching seems more practical. less work than head starting.
double-clutching (but when is this a bad idea?)
putting imperiled species eggs in another species clutch, causes species to lay another clutch, give you more reproductive output. California condor. only do it when that egg will be successfully raised by the other species and when that species will create another clutch. lay 3 clutches raise only 1 bird.
sea turtles. nests evacuated and raised in captivity, older juveniles are released close to ocean to reduce predation.
offspring are removed from their biological parents at birth and raised by surrogates. whooping crane with the sandhill crane( also used double clutching). Didnt work because the cranes thought they were sandhills. then raised by humans. migratory humans did not work. but cranes population has had exponential growth.
Main problems (3) with the single-species intensive management approach
a. "Emergency Room medicine"
b. There are thousands of imperiled species; some with conflicting needs
c. Imperiled species cannot persist and recover
without their ecological communities
in situ vs ex situ conservation: definition? examples? which is preferable?
in situ- in the wild conservation by creating reserves. nature reserves. preferable??
Ex situ- in captivity conservation. zoos cryostorage
What is cryostorage and what are the primary taxa stored this way
freezes shit for the future. seeds and some embryos.
Svalbard Global Seed Bank; "Amphibian Ark" program
cryostorage. select species that would otherwise go extinct will be maintained in captivity until they can be secured in the wild.
What should be the ultimate goal of a captive breeding program?
to establish captive populations that are large enough to be demographically stable and genetically healthy in the wild environment
What are the main benefits (4) of captive breeding programs
1. Temporarily remove populations from threats in wild
2. Offspring from captive populations can be released to the
wild to supplement existing populations, restore extirpated populations, or establish new populations in new areas.
3. Research possibilities.
4. Promote public education, awareness of conservation issues.
limitations (6) of captive breeding programs
1. Is often very hard to establish self-sustaining captive
2. Captive populations are usually small: High risk of genetic effects.
3. Captivity leads to domestication.
4. Disease and other factors related to high density.
5. Limitation of human resources: $$, personnel, facilities, priorities
6. Is not a substitute for addressing the limiting factor
Channel Island Fox
species decline in 90s. found out it was because the ungulate population (feral pigs) caused a hyperpredation of golden eagle. they removed golden eagles and reintroduced with bald eagles. removed ungulates. put fox into capitivity and released. now doing good.
where getting killed by lead toxicity by eating hunters kills. used double clutching to bring these dudes back
bird needs remnant forests, was dying in intact forests, thought it was from domesticated cow disease, turned out to be brown tree snake, ran tests and concluded.
What is the IPCC and what does it do?
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. assesses the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change.
What are the major geographic patterns of observed climate change (already happened)
less time water is froozen, more warming on land than water, northern hemi is warmer than souther.
What are GHGs, and what are the 3 primary GHGs that contribute to climate change?
things that hold in heat. Nitrogn, CO2, Methane
What is the approximate current concentration (ppm) of CO2 in the atmosphere?
403 28% increase since 1900
In general, how much warming is expected to occur in the next century (by 2100)?
2-4 degrees celsius
In general, what are the primary expected species' responses to GCC?
"decoupling" in space and time; phenology; plasticity; obligate relationships
Species Range shifts.
-"Decoupling" (spatial) of interspecific interactions (pollination,
dispersal, etc.) especially important for OBLIGATE (required) interactions.
Changes in phenology (timing of biological activity)
-Decoupling (temporal): Migratory species arrive at non-optimal times, because cues on wintering grounds are no longer correct indicators of conditions on breeding grounds or migratory route. (Same may be due for emergence of hibernators.)
-Plasticity (timing, resource use) and resilience will be key to survival. Changes in intensity and frequency of disturbance:
Why are coral reefs particularly vulnerable to climate warming?
1. Changes in water temperature. (physiological stress)
2. Changes in sea level ( less photo)
3. Changes in ocean chemistry. (acidification of oceans, harder to make reefs (Ca))
What is a "bioclimatic niche" and how is it modeled?
climate envelope- As climate changes, how will a species' range change?
Basic steps in "Climate Envelope Modeling" *
1. Map the distribution of the species (point locations).
2. Map the climate conditions across its range.
3. Note the climate conditions where the species does and does not currently occur. (This is the species' "climate envelope" or "climatic niche.")
4. Map how the on-the-ground climate will be in the future (usually via a GCM).
5. Based on the relationship in Step 3, determine how the species' range will change to maintain the same "climatic niche." In other words, its geographic distribution changes, but its "climatic niche" does not.
Know the key steps and key assumptions in bioclimatic niche
1. The species' current correlation with climate indicates its true climatic niche. The species is "at equilibrium" with the climate.
2. Microclimates change the same as macroclimate.
3. Ignores interactions between species.
4. Species can move in response to climate; their movement paths are not blocked.
5. No adaptation or evolution to changing climate.
What are the 2 key components of climate? What is a SDM? a GCM?
precipitation/ temperature. general circulation model (GCM) is a type of climate model. It employs a mathematical model of the general circulation of a planetary atmosphereSpecies distribution models (SDMs), among other uses, can help predict the locations of rare and threatened plant and animal species,general circulation model
Why do researchers think Pika are going to be less affected by climate than Alpine Chipmunk?
alpine chipmunk has more of a affect on range reduction than pika.
What is "biological diversity"?
How do biologists define it and quantify it?
Why is it important?
Where is biological diversity? What are the processes (abiotic and biotic) that create biodiversity?
What are its patterns taxonomically and geographically?(islands; tropics; latitudinal gradient; species-area curve)
What are the processes (abiotic and biotic) that create biodiversity?
What is extinction?
What are the historic rates and current extinction rates, and how did we calculate these rates?
What are the main threats to biodiversity worldwide?
What intrinsic characteristics make some species more vulnerable than others, and why?
What are the various types of overexploitation? How are they best addressed?
What are "exotic" species? How do exotic species get introduced?
What are the characteristics of successful invasive species? How are exotic species best managed?
What happens when a habitat or a species becomes fragmented?
What bodies of ecological theory help us understand these dynamics? What ecological processes are most important to address?
What do we do to solve these problems:
How do we protect habitats? Tools, processes, decision-making...
How do we recover imperiled species? Tools, processes, limitations...