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What is the term for a process by which necrotic cells are replaced by vital cells?


What are the 2 types of repair?

parenchymal regeneration, fibrosis

What is the term for regeneration of injured tissue by replacement with cells of the identical type?

parenchymal regeneration

What are the 2 conditions of parenchymal regeneration?

capacity for parenchymal regeneration, CT framework is maintained

Which type of cells proliferate throughout life and regenerate after injury? 2

labile, continuously dividing cells

What are 5 examples of labile cells?

epi, mucosa, spleen, lymph, bone marrow

What are the characteristics of stable/quiescent cells? 2

low level of replication, can be rapid

What are examples of stable cells? 7

liver, kidney, lung, pancreas, smooth muscle, fibroblasts, endothelium

What are 2 types of permanent cells?

neurons, heart

What is the term for replacement by fibrous CT or fibroplasia?


What tissue type is increased in fibrosis repair?


What are fibroblasts active in synthesizing? 2

proteoglycans, collagen

What are the 4 factors favoring fibrosis?

prolonged injury, loss of basement membranes, lots of exudate, lack of renewable cell population

What are the 2 consequences of fibrosis?

loss of functional parenchymal tissue, alteration of physical properties of tissue

How long does it take fibroblasts and vascular EC to proliferate? granulation tissue?

24 hours, 3-5 days

What are the 2 characteristic histological features of granulation tissue?

proliferation of new BV and fibroblasts

What are the 4 zones of granulation tissue?

necrosis/fibrin, MO/capillaries, capillaries/fibroblasts, mature CT

What is the zone of granulation tissue that has a superficial area of variable thickness?

necrosis debris and fibrin

What is the zone of granulation tissue with cleanup, angiogenesis and neovascularization?

macrophages and in-growing capillaries

What is the zone of granulation tissue where young BV from mature vessels that grow perpendicular to the surface of the defect?

proliferating capillaries, fibroblasts

What zone of granulation tissue represents the oldest portion of the healing process?

mature fibrous CT

what are the 4 steps needed for angiogenesis?

degradation of bm, migration of EC, proliferation of EC, maturation of EC

What is the term for the process by which the amount of collagen deposition is increased?


What are the 4 steps that happen in maturation of granulation tissue?

granulation tissue matures, collagen and ground substance are deposited, granulation bed contracts as it matures, specialization of fibroblasts to contractile cells

Which type of inflammation are granulomas and granulomatous?


What are the 2 major characteristics of granulation?

fibrous CT, neovascularization

What is the term for a process including CT replacement and regeneration by which restoration of tissue continuity is achieved?

wound healing

What are the 2 types of wound healing seen in skin?

1st intention, 2nd intention

When is healing by first intention? 2

little exudate, tissue elements are closely approximated

what is the result of healing by 1st intention?

healing with like tissue and little fibrosis

When is healing by 2nd intention?

edges of wounds are widely separated

What happens in healing by 2nd intention?

granulation tissue replaces fibrin and necrotic debris in the wound

What are the 9 steps of skin healing?

clot, restore epithelim, EC lose contact, inflammation, neovascularization, fibroblasts, devascularization, egress of inflammation and fibroblasts, scar

what type of healing happens in livers?

parenchymal, scar

what type of healing happens in kidneys with no destruction of the ECM?


what type of healing happens in kidneys with destruction of the ECM? how long for function?

scar formation and incomplete regeneration, 4 weeks

What is the term for rupture of basement membrane?


What happens to lungs when the inflammation cells don't lyse the alveolar exudate? 2

granulation tissue with intra-alveolar fibrosis

What are pneumocytes called, and what do they differentiate into?

II to type I

What will alveolar injury with ruptured basement membrane result in? 2

scarring and fibrosis

What do mesenchymal cells differentiate into? 2

fibroblasts, myofibroblasts

How does healing happen in the brain? 2

fibroblasts, glial cells

What happens in a puncture wound in the brain? 2

fibrous core derived from meninges, perivascular adventitia

What stimulates astrocytes? 2

edema, ischemia

What are migratory actively phagocytic cells of the neurophil that engulf lipids and degenerate fragments of dendrites and necrotic neurons?


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