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a play that ends unhappily


important central idea in the play


reasons for characters' beliefs and actions


the hero or leading character with whom the audience sympathizes


the character who opposes or competes with the protagonist


a contrast between what is and what appears to be

Dramatic irony

when the audience knows what the characters do not


a speech given by a character alone on stage. Its purpose is to let the audience know what the character is feeling and/or thinking

Comic relief

a humorous scene, incident, or speech that relieves the overall emotional intensity


a character whose personality or attitudes are in sharp contrast to those of another character in the same work


a character's remark, either to the audience or to another character, that others on stage are not supposed to hear


a joke that comes from a play on words

Tragic Hero

The main character in a story who makes a mistake that leads to his/her downfall


a word or phrase that contradicts itself

Situational Irony

When an event occurs that contradicts the idea the character had

Verbal Irony

When there is a misunderstanding in what a character says or does

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