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82 terms

Vocabulary for Ortho Overview (Steiner)

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Here's some vocab!!
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Ankylosis
restriction of motion in a joint
antalgic gain
gait pattern in which the weight is quickly removed from the extremity due to pain i.e. jumping up and down on one foot after a sprained ankle
arthrodesis
surgical stiffening
arthroplasty
surgery to restore motion and function to a joint
capsule
a complicated soft tissue structure that envelopes a joint, providing stability and separating it from surrounding structures; includes ligaments and tendinous expansions
Coxa
hip bone or joint
cubitus
elbow
diaphysis
the shaft of a bone
dislocation
complete separation or displacement of the surfaces of a joint
effusion
escape of fluid, usually synovial, into a joint cavity
Enthesis
the site of attachment of ligament or tendon to a bone. The root word used in the description of terms comely used in the discussion of inflammatory arthritis. The primary pathologic site in the spondyloarthopathies (enthesitis, enthesopathy, or enthesophyte). Enthesitis may lead to erosion or the formation of reactive new bone.
Extensor
the dorsal or posterior surface
Flexor
ventral or anterior surface. Plantar, palmar, or volar
Functional
nonroganic, not caused by a structural defect
Genu
knee or knee join
hallux
great toe
hemarthrosis
extravasation of blood into a joint cavity, usually caused by a ligament injury or fracture
ligament
a band of capsular fibrous tissue that connects bones (joints), providing support and strength
meniscus
a crescent shapred disc of fibrocartilage attached to an articular surface
metaphysis
the broad, vascular part of a bone near a joint
mortise
a slot or groove into which some other part fits to join securely (ankle mortise: the relationship of the talus to the malleoli)
orthopedic
"straight child"
Osteonecrosis
death of bone (aseptic necrosis or avascular necrosis)
Palmar
the anterior surface of the hand
Parethesia
abnormal sensation, such as burning and tingling
Pes
foot
Plantar
the sole or flexor surface of the foot
Pollex
thumb
radicular
spinal nerve involvement
sciatica
a general term used to describe pain in the thigh caused by spinal compression of one of the sciatic nerve roots
Spondylitis
inflammation invoking the spinal coloumn
Spondylolisthesis
slipping of a vertebra, usually caused by spondylitis
Spondylolysis
dissolution or loosening of a vertebra
Spondylosis
disease, usually degenerative, of a vertebra
Sprain
injury to a joint ligament or capsule
Strain
injury to a muscle or tendon
Subluxation
incomplete dislocation
synovium
lining of a joint. The synovium produces fluid for joint nutrition
Talipes
talus + pes (ankle + foot)
tenosynovium
the synovial sheath in which tendons move, usually at joint levels
Motion Terms

Abduction
movement away from the middles line (in the hand, the long finger is the middle line)
Adduction
movement toward the middle line
Eversion
turning outward (in the foot, valgus, eversion and pronation are frequent synonyms)
Extension
straightening of a joint
Flexion
bending of a joint
inversion
turing inward (in the foot, varus, inversion and supination are frequent synonyms)
Pronation
to rotate the forearm in such a way that the palm looks backward when the arm is in the anatomic position)
Supination
to rotate the forearm in such a way that the palm looks forward when the arm is in the anatomic position
Deformities

Calcaneus
dorsiflexion of he foot
cavus
hollow; abnormally high arch
Equinus
plantar flexion of the foot
Kyphosis
curvature of the spine with posterior convexity
Lordosis
curvature of the spine with anterior convexity
Planus
flat; abnormally low arch
recurvation
backward bending or hyperexteions
Scoliosis
abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
Valgus
the distal part angulates away from the midline of the body
Varus
the distal part angulates toward the midline of the body
FRACTURE terminology

Avulsion
"chip;" small fracture near a join that usually has a ligament or tendon attached
closed
"simple;" fracture not associated with an open wound to the skin
comminuted
fracture with multiple fragments
displaced
fracture whose ends are separated
epiphyseal
fracture of the growth plate, usually in a long bone
greenstick
incomplete fracture that usually occurs in kids
impacted
fracture whose ends are driven into each other
intraarticular
fracture that involves the joint surface of a bone
occult
clinical condition that suggests a fracture; roentorgrams 2-3 weeks later may show the fracture line or new bone formation
open
"compound;" fracture in which there is an open wound of the son and soft parts that lead into the fracture
pathologic
fracture that occurs because the bone is weakened by some abnormal condition
stress
fracture that occurs when weak bone is stressed normally = insufficiency stress fracture
fracture that occurs when normal bone is stressed excessively = fatigue stress fracture.

usually only seen in weight-bearing bones
torus
buckle fracture caused by compression of the cortex; most common in the distal portion of the radius of a child
MISC FRACTURE TERMINOLOGY

Alignment
rotation or angular postion
apposition
amount of end-to-end contact of the fracture
delayed union
fracture healing that is slower than normal
dislocation
disruption in the continuity of a joint
fracture-dislocation
dislocation that occurs in conjunction with a fracture of a joint. If incomplete, it is called a fracture-subluxation
malunion
healing in an unsatisfactory position
nonunion
failure of a bony healing
pseudarthrosis
failure of a bone healing that produces a "false joint" consisting of soft tissue
subluxation
partial disruption in the continuity of a joint (an incomplete dislocation)
Here's a practical note..
Fractures do not dislocate, they DISPLACE. They are thus described according to the type, place in the bone, the amount of displacement, and angulation. Rotation (torsion) is often difficult to assess roentgenographically but relatively easy to assess clinically. Rotation is usually described in reference to the DISTAL fragment, as is angulation.