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Terms in this set (33)

Cultural assimilation is the process by which an individual's or groups behavior and culture begin to resemble that of another group
-This can also mean that groups with different cultures begin to merge into one

Assimilation integrates new aspects of a society and culture with old ones - transforms the culture itself

While one society melds into another, typical not an even blend - one will have more power & influence than the other, so more traits from that culture displayed after transformation

In terms of immigrant assimilation, there are 4 primary factors that can be used to assess the completeness of assimilation: socioeconomic status, geographic distribution, language attainment, and intermarriage

Assimilation can be slowed by the creation of ethnic enclaves which are locations (usually neighborhoods) with a high concentration of one specific ethnicity
-most common in urban areas and often have names like "Chinatown" or "Little Italy"

Multiculturalism refers to communities or societies containing multiple cultures
-multiculturalism encourages, respects, and celebrates cultural differences
-this view can enhance cultural diversity and acceptance within society, which contrasts with the concept of assimilation

Multiculturalism is often described as creating a "cultural mosaic" or mixture of cultures and ethnic groups that coexist in society, whereas assimilationalism is described as creating a "melting pot" or melting together of different elements of culture into one homogenous culture
Sociologist and psychologist use the term socialization when discussing the process of developing, inheriting, and spreading norms, customs, and beliefs.

Individuals gain the knowledge, skills, habits, and behaviors that are necessary for inclusion in society
-the views of society become the accepted viewpoints and are generally adopted by the individuals within it

Socialization can be further categorized:
Primary socialization occurs during childhood when we initially learn acceptable actions and attitudes in our society, primarily through observation of our parents and other adults in close proximity
-in children, this sets the stage for future socialization and provides the foundation for creating personal opinions

Secondary socialization is the process of learning appropriate behavior within smaller sections of the larger society
-this type of socialization occurs from outside the home and is based on learning the rules of specific social environments
-ex: the behavior necessary to thrive in school is different from that in the home setting, and also that which is acceptable on sports field or in church
-typically associated with adolescents and adults
-includes smaller changes and refinements to behavior that were established in primary socialization
-secondary socialization can also occur when moving to a new region or changing schools or professions

Anticipatory socialization is the process by which a person prepares for future changes in occupations, living situations, or relationships
-ex: a couple living together in preparation for married life is an example of anticipatory socialization

Resocialization is another process by which one discards old behaviors in favor of new ones to make a life change, and can have positive or negative connotations
-the method by which members of the armed forces are trained to obey orders and commands without hesitation is a prime example of resocialization, but so is attracting and indoctrinating members into a cult
The functional attitudes theory says that attitudes serve four functions: knowledge, ego-expression, adaptation, and ego-defense

The knowledge function is important in that it provides consistency and stability
-attitudes help provide organization to thoughts and experiences, and knowing the attitudes of others helps to predict their behavior
-ex: we'd predict that someone who cares about political action would vote in an upcoming election

Attitudes can also be ego-expressive, allowing us to communicate and solidify our self-identity
-ex: if a person strongly identifies with a sports team, she may wear a hat that helps identify her as a fan of that team

Adaptive attitude is the idea that one will be accepted if socially acceptable attitudes are expressed

Lastly, attitudes are ego-defensive if they protect our self-esteem or justify actions that we know are wrong
-ex: a child who has difficulty doing math may develop a negative attitude toward that subject

Learning theory posits that attitudes are developed through different forms of learning

Direct contact wiht the object can influence attitudes
-ex: children with a positive attitude toward sweets almost immediately after tasking them

Direct instruction can also influence attitudes
-ex: a child who is taught by her parents not to use curse words can form a negative attitude toward curse words and, indirectly, a negative attitude towards those who use them

Attitudes can be influenced by other's attitudes
-ex: a teenager may begin to have a positive attitude toward smoking if his friends all smoke

Attitudes may be formed through classical conditioning, operant conditioning, or observational learning

The elaboration likelihood model separates individuals on a continuum, based on their processing of persuasive information

At one extreme - those who elaborate extensively; those who think deeply about information, scrutinize its meaning and purpose, and draw conclusions or make decisions based on this thought
-this deep thinking is referred to as central route processing

At other extreme - those who do not elaborate; focusing on superficial details: the appearance of the person delivering the argument, catchphrases and slogans, and credibility
-this is known as peripheral route processing

Most people fall into middle of this continuum
-degree to which we elaborate on info can vary depending on the specific situation

Social Cognitive Theory says that people learn how to behave and shape attitudes by observing the behaviors of others

This idea says behavior is not learned by trial-and-error but develops through:
-direct observation and replication of the actions of others,
-and in tandem with the influence of personal factors (such as thoughts about the behavior)
-and the environment in which we observe the behavior

These three factors - behavior, personal factors, and environment, are not independent concepts, but influence each other as shown in Bandura's triadic reciprocal causation *fig 8.9

For example:
-The work ethic of employees in a company (behavior) is affected by how hard their colleagues work, their previous attitudes toward hard work (personal) and the systems and infrastructure of the company (environment).
-reciprocally, this behavior may create a change in the employees attitude toward work (personal) and the systems within the company (environment)