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microtubles, ring, 9 + 2 array

Eukaryotic flagella and cilia are anchored to the plasma membrane by a basal body and consist of nine pairs of ________ arranged in a _____, plus another two in the center, all of which is called a ________.


long, hollow tubes made up of a "tubulin" protein; compared to the prokaryotic flagellum's rotation, eukaryotes's flagellum moves in a wavelike manner; *cilia* move substances along the surface of the cells

cellulose, chitin, glucan, mannan

most *algae* cell walls are made up of _____, most *fungi* are made of ______, and yeast cell walls are made of ______ and ______. *animal* cells do not have a cell wall; *protozoa* have *pellicles* instead.

glycocalyx (eukaryotic)

a viscous, gelatinous polymer surrounding a cell's plasma membrane (ex/ in animal cells); made of sticky carbohydrates (which can make *glycoproteins* and *glycolipids* that anchor this to the cell); strengthens the cell surface, cell-cell recognition, helps attach cells together


Eukaryote cells do not contain ________, the framework of the prokaryotic cell wall, which is *why antibiotics do not affect human eukaryotic cells*.

(glycocalyx) carbohydrates, sterols

Eukaryotic plasma membranes are similar in function and structure to prokaryotic ones, but euk. plas-membranes also contain ____ (bacterial attachment sites and cell-cell recognition receptor sites) and ____ (complex lipids that resist lysis)

group translocation, endocytosis

this type of transport does not happen across eukaryotic plasma membranes, but instead can use _______ (the process by which a segment of the plasma membrane surrounds, encloses, and brings a particle into the cell)

phagocytosis, pinocytosis

two types of *endocytosis*
1. ____ - cellular projections ("psuedopods") engulf particles and bring them into the cell (ex/ white blood cells); 2. ____ - plasma membrane folds inward, bringing in extracellular fluid and what's dissolved (ex/ viruses)


in a eukaryotic cell, everything inside the plamsa membrane and outside the nucleus (*cytosol*: the fluid portion); a more complex internal structure (cytoskeleton) than in the prokaryote;


microfilaments, intermediate filaments (small rods), and microtubules that provide support and movement for eukaryotic cytoplasm

cytoplasmic streaming

the movement of cytoplasm throughout eukaryotic cells to help distribute nutrients


important enzymes found in the cytoplasmic fluid of prokaryotes are found in the ____ of eukaryotes

80S, free, membrane-bound

eukaryotic ribosomes function same as prokaryotic ribosomes (protein synthesis) but are larger/denser; the eukaryotic kind: _____ (small 40S subunit w/ 1 rRNA + larger 60S subunit w/ 3 rRNA); if unattached: _____, if attached to ER and nuclear membrane: ______


a membrane-enclosed structure within eukaryotic cells


usually the largest structure in an eukaryotic cell, contains almost all of the DNA (genetic material/chromosomes); surrounded by *nuclear envelope* (has *nuclear pores* for cytoplasm communication, *nucleoli* for rRNA synthesis); includes *histones* (proteins not in prokaryotes)

ER (endoplasmic reticulum)

an extensive network of *cisterns* (flattened membranous sacs) in eukaryotic cells; connecting the plasma membrane with the nuclear membrane (continuous)

rough, smooth

two kinds of ER:
1. ___ ER: has ribsomes, processing/sorting/protein synthesis
2. ___ ER: unique enzymes; lipid/fat/steroids synthesis, inactivates and detoxifies drugs

golgi complex

an cuplike-shaped organelle involved in the secretion of certain proteins; 3-20 cisterns stacked; membrane formation and secretion, modification of proteins to form glycoproteins/glycolipids/lipoproteins


part of the membrane that buds out to either *transport* (fuse with a golgi cistern), *transfer* (modify proteins, move between cisterns), *secrete* (detrach from cistern, deliver proteins to plasma membrane for exocytosis), or *store*


an organelle containing digestive enzymes; formed from golgi; single-membrane enclosed, lack internal structure, contain many powerful digestive enzymes for various molecules and bacteria! (ex/ white blood cells have many)


a space/cavity in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that is enclosed by a "tonoplast" (plasma membrane); from golgi; stores temporarily, brings food into cells, provides support


organelles in most eukaryotic cells; double membrane (inner membrane in folds/*cristae*); center: *matrix*; cellular respiration, main site for energy production (ATP); contain 70S ribosomes and own DNA, can increase/divide on their own


organelle in algae/green plants; has membrane; contains *grana* (stacks of *thlyakoids*: flat membrane sacs) with pigment chlorophyll; contains 70S ribosomes and own DNA; can increase/divide on their own; performs *photosynthesis*


organelle that oxidizes amino acids, fatty acids, alcohol; by-product is H2O2 but enzyme "catalase" destroys it


region in a euk cell consisting of a pericentriolar area (protein fibers) and a pair of *centrioles* (9+0 array: 9 clusters of 3 microtubules); involved in the formation of the mitotic spindle

endosymbiotic theory

explanation of the origin of eukaryotes from prokaryotes (Lynn Margulis); larger bacterial cells lost walls and engulfed smaller bacterial cells (ex/ chromosome) (it lives within it);
evidence: mitochondria/chloroplasts resemble bacteria, circular DNA, can reproduce independently, ribosomes resemble, same antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis

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