75 terms

WHI.5 Ancient Greece

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Greece is located in -
the Aegean Basin
Greece
first major civilization of Europe
Macedonia
An ancient kingdom north of Greece, whose ruler Philip II conquered Greece in 338 B.C.
Aegean Sea
the sea that separates Greece from Asia Minor
Balkan peninsula
A large peninsula in southern Europe bounded by the Black, Aegean, and Adriatic seas.
Peloponnesus peninsula
A mountainous peninsula in southern Greece. Sparta was located on this peninsula.
Asia Minor
the western Asian peninsula comprising most of modern-day Turkey, known to the Greeks as Anatolia
Mediterranean Sea
A large, almost landlocked arm of the Atlantic Ocean touching Europe, Asia, and Africa
Black Sea
sea located between Europe and Asia north of Turkey
Dardanelles
a strait connecting the Black Sea with the Mediterranean
Athens
Greek city-state which practiced democracy
Sparta
Greek city state led by an oligarchy
Troy
an ancient city in Asia Minor that was the site of the Trojan War
Greek geography
Surrounded by water on three sides with smaller peninsulas protruding from the mainland
Greece's Mountains
natural barriers & boundaries; prevented large scale farming
Greece's coastline
had deep bays & natural harbors
Greek mythology
based on a polytheistic religion that was integral to culture, politics and art
legacy of ancient Greek mythology
many of Western civilization's symbols, metaphors, words and idealized images
offered explanations of natural phenomena, human qualities and life events
Greek mythology
Zeus
king of gods and ruler of Mount Olympus; god of the sky, thunder, and justice
Hera
Zeus' wife; queen of gods and of the heavens; goddess of women, marriage, and motherhood
Apollo
god of light and music
Artemis
goddess of the hunt and the moon
Athena
goddess of wisdom; patron god of Athens
Aphrodite
goddess of love and beauty
How people in Greece became slaves
by being captured as prisoners of war, born to enslaved parents or failing to repay their loans & debts
role of slaves in Greece
Did not have power, political rights or status. Most families owned them as household servants or laborers
an inspiration for modern democracies
Athens
Greek cities
promoted civic & commerical life
Greek citizens
free adult males
polis
A city-state in ancient Greece
had no political rights in ancient Greece
women, foreigners and slaves
stages in the evolution of Athenian government
monarchy, aristocracy, tyranny and democracy
monarchy
state ruled over by a single person, as a king or queen
aristocracy
a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
tyranny
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator
democracy
a form of government in which citizens govern themselves
Athenian tyrants who worked for reform
Draco and Solon
Draco
created a set of harsh (Draconian) laws for Athens
Solon
Athenian statesman; made Athens more democratic
democratic principles that originated in Athens
- direct democracy
- public debate
- duties of the citizen
direct democracy
Government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials directly
oligarchy
rule by a small group
militaristic and aggressive city state with a rigid social structure
Sparta
Wars fought from 499-449 BCE
Persian Wars
two sides of the Persian War
Athens & Sparta against the Persian Empire
sites of two Athenian victories in the Persian Wars
Marathon & Salamis
significance of victories at Marathon & Salamis
left the Greeks in control of the Aegean Sea
result of the Persian Wars
Athens preserved its independence and continued its innovations in government and culture
war caused in part by competition for control of the Greek world from 431-404 BCE
Peloponnesian War
two sides of the Peloponnesian War
Athens & the Delian League against Sparta & the Peloponnesian League
result of the Peloponnesian War
weakened Athens & Sparta, setting the stage for the Macedonian conquest & the end of Greek democracy
time period between the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars
Golden Age of Pericles
Golden Age of Pericles
- extended democracy, giving most adult males an equal voice
- Athens was rebuilt following the Persian War
what the expansion of Greece through trade & colonization led to
the spread of Greek culture across the Black & Mediterranean Seas
example of the Reconstruction of Athens following the Persian War
Parthenon
Aeschylus
father of Greek tragic drama
Sophocles
Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus Rex
Homer
author of the Iliad and the Odyssey
Herodotus
the ancient Greek known as the father of history
Thucydides
ancient Greek historian remembered for his history of the Peloponnesian War (460-395 BC)
Phidias
Athenian sculptor who supervised the building of the Parthenon
three types of columns
Doric, Ionic and Corinthian
Doric column
The Doric column is the oldest and simplest Greek style--its found on the Parthenon in Athens.
Ionic column
Ionic columns are identified by the scroll-shaped ornaments at the top
Corinthian column
fanciest column decorated with leaves and flower designs
Archimedes
Greek scientist. He is best known for the lever and pulley.
Hippocrates
medical practitioner who is regarded as the father of medicine
Euclid
Greek Mathematician (Father of Geometry) who taught in Alexandria
Pythagoras
Greek philosopher and mathematician who proved the Pythagorean theorem
Socrates
ancient Athenian philosopher; teacher of Plato
Plato
ancient Athenian philosopher; teaher of Aristotle; author of The Republic
Aristotle
Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander the Great; knowledge based on observation of phenomena in material world
Philip II
King of Macedonia; conquered most of Greece & returned them to a monarchy
Alexander the Great
established an empire which stretched to western India & spread Greek influence

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