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Exam 2

What is inflammation?

reaction of vascularized living tissues to injury

What are the characteristics of inflammation?

- involves changes in vascular bed, blood, connective tissue
- intended to eliminate irritant and repair damaged tissue

What are the signs of inflammation?

redness, heat, swelling, pain and loss of function

What is the purpose of inflammation?

- contain and isolate an injury
- destroy invading microorganisms anr/or inactivate toxins
- acheive healing and repair

What are the 3 outcomes of inflammation?

- ideal conditions return to normal
- intense inflammatory response in an attempt to separate the injured tissue
- failure to eliminate cause of inflammation

What is scar tissue a consequence of?

a lot of inflammation and repair

What happens in ideal inflammatory reactions?

- elimination of the source of injury
- resolution of inflammatory process
- restoration of normal tissue architecture and physiologic functions

What occurs in an intense inflammatory response?

the body attemps to isolate the inflammatory process by a formation of a wall/capsule

What happens if there is failure to eliminate the causative agent?

- persistence of inflammatory cells and formation of scar tissue

What kind of tissue does inflammation occur in?

only in living tissue

What is the result of anaphylaxis?

it is more harmful than the initial stimulus

How do you classify inflammation?

- extent
- duration
- distribution
- type of exudate
- tissue/organ affected

what does a granulomatous exudate mean?

in chronic inflammation

What does duration have to do with clinical signs?


What are the duration classifications of inflammation?

- peracute
- acute
- subacute
- chronic

what are the main characteristics of peracute inflammation?

- caused by a potent stimulus
- the animal has no time to respind
- less common

What is the duration of peracute inflammation?

0-4 hours

What are the clinical signs of peracute inflammation?

shock and sudden death

What is the vascular involvement of peracute inflammation?

- hyperemia
- slight edema
- minimal hemorrhage

What are the inflammatory cells seen in peracute inflammation?

- not numerous
- few leukocytes

What is the duration of acute inflammation?

begins within 4-6 hours

What is the vascular involvement in acute inflammation?

- active hyperemia
- edema
- occasional fibrin thrombi within vessels

what are the predominant cells in acute inflammation?

neutrophils, sometimes with lymphocytes and plasma cells

What are the clinical signs of acute inflammation?

- calor, rubor, tumor, dolor, and loss of function

What is the lymphatics role in acute inflammation?

moving away the exudate
- can lead to acute regional lymphadentitis

What is inflammation of the lymphatics?


What is inflammation of the lymphnodes?


What is the problem with lymphadenopathy?

do not know if the inc. in size is due to inflammation or neoplasia

What is subacute inflammation?

defined as a gradual change between acute and chronic
- is used with the inflammatory response does not include reparative responses such as fibroplasia and angiogenesis

What is the duration of subacute inflammation?

a few days to a few weeks

What is the vascular involvement in subacute inflammation?

- decline in magnitude of the vascular changes
- less hemorrhage, hyperemia, and edema

What are the cells of subacute inflammation?

neutrophilic with lymphocytes macrophages and plasma cells

What is chronic inflammation?

result of persistent inflammatory stimulus in which the host has failed to completely eliminate the causative agent

What is chronic inflammation usually accompanied by?

immune response

What is chronic inflammation characterized by?

- fibrosis
- parenchymal regeneration

What is the vascular involvement in chronic inflammation?

chracterized by proliferation of cappilaries and small blood vessels resulting in hemorrhage and congestion

What are the predominant cells in chronic inflammation?

lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, and fibroblasts

What are the clinical signs of chronic inflammation?

prolonged duration of an inflammatory process

What is chronic active inflammation?

chronic inflammation may be accompanied by acute exacerbation in which the tissues exhibit all of the usual characteristics of chronicity, with features of acuteness superimposed

What is the duration of chronic active inflammation?

long period with exacerbations

what are the cells present in chronic active inflammation?

neutrophils, inflammatory cells associated with chronic inflammation, and host responses such as fibroplasia and angiogenesis

What is focal inflammation?

single abnormality or inflamed area within a tissue

What is keratitis?

inflammation of the cornea

What is multifocal inflammation?

arising from or pertaining to many foci

What is locally extensive inflammation?

involves a considerable zone of tissue within an inflamed organ

In lungs how does inflammation present when bacteria come from the blood?

multifocal or diffuse

In lungs, how does inflammation present when bacteria comes from the air?

locally extensive

what is diffuse inflammation?

the entire tissue is involved

What etiologies normally cause diffuse lesions?

viral or toxicity

What are common types of exudate in inflammation?

- suppurative
- fibrinous

What is exudation?

escape of fluid, proteins and blood cells from the vascular system into the interstitium or body cavities

What is exudate?

inflammatory extravascular fluid that has a high protein conc., much cellular devris, and a specific gravity above 1.020

What is a transudate?

an ultrafiltrate of blood plasma and results from hydrostatic imbalances across the vascular endothelium
- low protein content
- specific gravity less than 1.020

What is an example of a transudate?


What is an example of a exudate?


What is edema?

an excess of fluid in the interstitial tissue or serous cavities
- can be an exudate or transudate

What kind of edema is inflammatory edema?


What is serous exudation?

inflammatory process in which the outpouring of thin fluid, originating from plasma or secretions of mesothelial cells, occurs in tissues in the absence of a prominent cellular response

What is an example of serous exudation?

blisters caused by heat or trauma

What is the gross appearance of serous exudate?

yellow, straw-like color, fluid commonly seen in very ealy stages of inflammation
- thin and watery
- ulceration will follow the rupture of a vesicle

What is erosion?

a lesion in which the epithelial surface is denuded above the basement membrane

What is an ulcer?

a local defect of the surface of an organ or tissue in which the epithelial surface is denuded beyond the basement membrane

What is an epidermal erosion?

moist, circumscribed, usually depressed lesion due to loss of all or part of the epidermis. Is shallow and does not penetrate into the dermis

What do epidermal erosions often result from?

eruptions of vesicles and bullae

What is a skin ulcer?

a circumscribed area of skin loss extending through the epidermis and at least part of the dermis

What is a vesicle?

- blister
- a sharply circumscribed, elevated lesion that is less than 5mm in diameter containing serous fluid

What is fibrinous exudation?

severe injury to endothelium and basement membranes results in leakage of large plasma proteins including fibrinogen, which polymerizes perivascularly as fibrin

What is the gross appearance of fibrinous inflammation?

yellow-white, or pale tan, stringy, shaggy meshwork which gives a rough irregular appearance to the tissue surfaces
- friable material peels off easily

What is the duration of fibrinous inflammation?

- acute process, can form in seconds

What is suppurative exudation?

cosisting of or containg pus, assosiated with the formation of pus

What is pus?

a liquid inflammation product composed of:
- accumulated dead cells
- variable numbers of viable cells (neutrophils)
- fluid added by the inflammatory edema-forming process

If fluid is prominent, what will the necrosis be classified as?


What is suppuration?

the process by which pus is formed
- implies that neutrophils and proteolytic enzymes are present and the necrosis of host tissue cells has occured

What is an abscess?

is a circumscribed (partially walled off) collection of pus. A localized form of suppurative inflammation

What are suppurative lesions often caused by?


What is the gross appearance of an abscess?

is yellow-white to gray-white and varies from watery to viscous depending on the fluid content

What is osteomyelitis?

inflammation of the bone and bone marrow

What is fibrinopurulent exudate?

used to classify an inflammatory process in which neutrophils and fibrin are abundant

What is the duration of granulomatous inflammation?

always is chronic

What is granulomatous inflammation?

an inflammatory response characterized by the presence of lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells with the predominant cell being the macrophage

What is a granuloma?

macrophages are clustered on a characeristic elliptical formation around the causative etiologic agent, or around a central necrotic area, or simply as organized nodules

What type of cell besides macrophages are characteristic of granulomas?

multinucleated giant cells

What is the etiology of granulomatous inflammation?

usually some non-digestible organism or particle which serves as a chronic inflammatory stimulus, and induces delayed- type hypersensitivity

What microorganisms cause granulomatous inflammation?

mycobacterium, actinomyces, blastomyces, coccidioides

What are some noninfectious agents that cause granulomatous inflammation?

mineral oil. complex polysaccharides, foreign bodies

What is necrotizing inflammation?

necrosis is the main feature and exudation is minimal

What is hemorrhagic inflammation?

inflammation in which the main feature is hemorrhage

What is mucopurulent or catarrhal inflammation?

the inflammatory exudate is composed of mucus and pus

What are polymorphonuclear leukocytes?

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells

What are mononuclear cells?

lymphocytes, plasma cells, monocytes, macrophages, and platelets

how long does it take for a neutrophil to mature in the bone marrow?

2 weeks

What is the purpose of neutrophils?

to eliminate microorganisms, tumor cells, and foreign material

When are eosinophils most abundant?

in diseases of immunologic, parasitic, or allergic origin

What is major basic protein?

component of eosinophil granules
- is strongly toxic to parasites as well as other kinds of cells

What is the life span of a macrophage?

30-60 days

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