83 terms

WHI.6 Ancient Rome

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Rome
centrally located in the Mediterranean Basin and distant from eastern Mediterranean Powers
Italian Peninsula
a boot-shaped peninsula in southern Europe extending into the Mediterranean Sea
Alps
offered protection to ancient Rome
Mediterranean Sea
offered protection and seaborne commerce to ancient Rome
Roman mythology
like Greek mythology, it was based on a polytheistic religion that was integral to culture, politics and art
legacy of Roman mythology
many of Western civilization's symbols, metaphors, words and idealized images
offered explanations of natural phenomena, human qualities and life events
Roman mythology
Jupiter
supreme god of Romans
Juno
wife of Jupiter; goddess of marriage
Apollo
sun god
Diana
goddess of the hunt and the moon
Minerva
goddess of wisdom and the hunt
Venus
goddess of love
the foundation of moden democracy
representative democracy developed by the Roman Republic
patricians
powerful nobilitiy (few in number)
plebeians
majority of the Roman population
slaves
not based on race in ancient Rome
Citizens under the Roman Republic
- patrician and plebeian men
- selected foreigners
groups not included in the governing of the Roman Republic
- women
- most aliens
- slaves
aliens
non-Romans living in the Republic
citizenship came with -
rights and responsibilities such as taxes & military service
features of democracy in the Roman Republic
- representative democracy
- assemblies
- The Senate
- consuls
- Twelve Tables
representative democracy
a government in which citizens choose a smaller group to govern on their behalf
assemblies
group of male citizens that voted on laws and elected officals
The Senate
composed of older Patricians, appointed by the Consul; laws required their approval
consuls
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
Twelve Tables
codified laws of Rome
wars that lasted from 264-146 BCE
Punic Wars
two sides of the Punic Wars
Rome and Carthage
reason for the Punic Wars
competition over trade
Hannibal
invaded the Italian Peninsula during the Punic Wars
results of the Punic Wars
- destruction of Carthage
- expanded trade and wealth for Rome
- diffusion of Roman culture due to dominance in the Mediterranean Basin
spread of Roman culture
- Mediterranean Basin
- Western Europe (Gual & the British Isles)
Mediterranean Basin
included parts of Africa, Asia, and Europe (including the Hellenistic world of the Eastern Mediterranean)
causes of the decline of the Roman Republic
- spread of slavery
- migration of small farmers into cities & unemployment
- civil war
- devaluation of Roman currency & inflation
reason for the civil wars that ended the Roman Repulic
the power of Julius Caesar
what replaced the Roman Republic
an imperial regime, the Roman Empire
first triumvirate
government by three people with equal power - Caesar, Pompey, Crassus
Julius Caesar
Part of the first triumvirate who eventually became "emperor for life". Was assassinated by fellow senators in 44 B.C.E.
Augustus Caesar
Name given to Octavian following his defeat of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra; first emperor of Rome.
the empire under Imperial Rome
was unified and enlarged using imperial power and the military
established the Roman Empire
Augustus Caesar
Pax Romana
200 years of peace and properity following Augustus Caesar
economic impact of the Pax Romana
- uniform system of money
- guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman roads
- promoted prosperity and stability
helped to expand trade during the Pax Romana
uniform system of money
social impact of the Pax Romana
- returned stability to social classes
- increased emphasis on the family
political impact of the Pax Romana
- creation of the civil service
- developed a uniform rule of law
accomplishments of Augustus Caesar
- instituted the civil service
- rule by law
- common coinage
- secure travel and trade throughout the Empire
had roots in Judaism
Christianity
the leader and proclaimed Messiah of Christianity
Jesus of Nazareth
messiah
a savior sent by God to redeem people from the power of sin
cause of conflict with Christianity in Rome
Romans were polytheistic
major beliefs of Christianity
- monotheism
- Jesus as the Son and incarnation of God
- life after death
- New testament
- other Christian doctrines
contains accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus along with writings of early Christians
New Testament
spread of Christianity
- popularity of the message
- early martyrs inspired others
- carried by the Apostles
martyr
one who voluntarily suffers death as the penalty for refusing to renounce their religion
Apostles
the 12 chosen disciples of Jesus who spread his teachings
one of Jesus' Apostles
Paul
emperor who converted to Christianity and made it legal in Rome
Constantine
importance of Christianity in the late Roman Empire
- became the official state religion
- the Church was the source of moral authority
- loyalty to the Church was more important than loyalty to the emporer
- was the main unifying force of Western Europe
the growth in importance of the Church of Rome coincided with -
the decline of the Roman Empire in the west
allowed for the spread of Roman cultural and technological advances
conquests and trade
Pantheon
A circular temple at Rome with a fine Corinthian portico and a great domed roof.
Colosseum
a large amphitheater built in Rome around A.D. 70; site of contests and combats
Forum
the city market and meeting place in the center of Ancient Rome
contributions of ancient Rome to technology
- roads
- aqueducts
- Roman arches
aqueducts
Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities
Ptolemy
Mathematician/Astronomer who believed the Earth was the center of the universe
ancient Rome's major advance in medicine
emphasis on public health
examples of Rome's emphasis on public health
- public baths
- public water systems
- medical schools
languages of ancient Rome
Latin and Romance languages
Virgil
author of the Aenieid
Twelve Tables
Roman law code
key principle found in the Twelve Tables
"innocent until proven guilty
causes for the decline of the Western Roman Empire
- geographic size
- economy
- moral decay
- political problems
- military
- invasion
problems caused in the Western Roman Empire due to geography
it's size made it difficult to defend and administer
economic problems in the Western Roman Empire
the cost of defense and the devaluation of Roman currency
military problems in the Western Roman Empire
army membership began to include non-Romans which led to a decline of discipline
political problems in the Western Roman Empire
civil conflict and weak administration
Constantine moved the capital of Rome to -
Byzantium
new name for Byzantium
Constantinople
year the Western Roman Empire ended
476 CE
the Eastern Roman Empire was also known as -
Byzantine Empire

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