72 terms

WHI.6 Ancient Rome

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Rome
emerged as the dominant civilization in Europe after the collapse of Alexander the Great's empire
Italian Peninsula
a boot-shaped peninsula in southern Europe extending into the Mediterranean Sea
Alps
offered protection to ancient Rome
Mediterranean Sea
offered protection and seaborne commerce to ancient Rome
Roman mythology
like Greek mythology, it was based on a polytheistic religion that was integral to culture, politics and art
legacy of Roman mythology
many of Western civilization's symbols, metaphors, words and idealized images
offered explanations of natural phenomena, human qualities and life events
Roman mythology
Jupiter
supreme god of Romans
Juno
wife of Jupiter; goddess of marriage
Apollo
sun god
Diana
goddess of the hunt and the moon
Minerva
goddess of wisdom and the hunt
Venus
goddess of love
model for moden democracy
representative democracy developed by the Roman Republic
how Roman cultural & technological achievements spread throughout the Empire
conquests & trade
patricians
wealthy individuals whose families were eligible to hold public office
plebeians
poorer individuals who could not hold public office; majority of the Roman population
slaves
individuals captured as prisoners of war, born to enslaved parents or who failed to repay their loans
Citizens under the Roman Republic
- patrician and plebeian men
- selected foreigners
groups not included in the governing of the Roman Republic
- women
- most aliens
- slaves
aliens
non-Romans living in the Republic
citizenship came with -
rights and responsibilities such as taxes & military service
features of democracy in the Roman Republic
- representative democracy
- assemblies
- The Senate
- consuls
- Twelve Tables
representative democracy
a government in which citizens choose a smaller group to govern on their behalf
assemblies
group of male citizens that voted on laws and elected officals
The Senate
composed of older Patricians, appointed by the Consul; laws required their approval
consuls
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
Twelve Tables
codified laws of Rome
wars that lasted from 264-146 BCE
Punic Wars
two sides of the Punic Wars
Rome and Carthage
reason for the Punic Wars
competition over trade
Hannibal
invaded the Italian Peninsula during the Punic Wars
results of the Punic Wars
- destruction of Carthage
- expanded trade and wealth for Rome
- diffusion of Roman culture due to dominance in the Mediterranean Basin
spread of Roman culture
- Mediterranean Basin
- Western Europe (Gual & the British Isles)
Mediterranean Basin
included parts of Africa, Asia, and Europe (including the Hellenistic world of the Eastern Mediterranean)
causes of the decline of the Roman Republic
- spread of slavery
- migration of small farmers into cities & unemployment
- civil war
- devaluation of Roman currency & inflation
reason for the civil wars that ended the Roman Repulic
the power of Julius Caesar
what replaced the Roman Republic
an imperial regime, the Roman Empire
first triumvirate
government by three people with equal power - Caesar, Pompey, Crassus
Julius Caesar
Part of the first triumvirate who eventually became "emperor for life". Was assassinated by fellow senators in 44 B.C.E.
Augustus Caesar
Name given to Octavian following his defeat of Mark Anthony and Cleopatra; first emperor of Rome.
the empire under Imperial Rome
was unified and enlarged using imperial power and the military
established the Roman Empire
Augustus Caesar
Pax Romana
200 years of peace and properity following Augustus Caesar
economic impact of the Pax Romana
- uniform system of money
- guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman roads
- promoted prosperity and stability
helped to expand trade during the Pax Romana
uniform system of money
social impact of the Pax Romana
- returned stability to social classes
- increased emphasis on the family
political impact of the Pax Romana
- creation of the civil service
- developed a uniform rule of law
accomplishments of Augustus Caesar
- instituted the civil service
- rule by law
- common coinage
- secure travel and trade throughout the Empire
allowed for the spread of Roman cultural and technological advances
conquests and trade
Pantheon
A circular temple at Rome with a fine Corinthian portico and a great domed roof.
Colosseum
a large amphitheater built in Rome around A.D. 70; site of contests and combats
Forum
the city market and meeting place in the center of Ancient Rome
contributions of ancient Rome to technology
- roads
- aqueducts
- Roman arches
aqueducts
Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities
Ptolemy
Mathematician/Astronomer who believed the Earth was the center of the universe
ancient Rome's major advance in medicine
emphasis on public health
examples of Rome's emphasis on public health
- public baths
- public water systems
- medical schools
languages of ancient Rome
Latin and Romance languages
Virgil
author of the Aenieid
Twelve Tables
Roman law code
key principle found in the Twelve Tables
"innocent until proven guilty
causes for the decline of the Western Roman Empire
- geographic size
- economy
- declining population
- political problems
- military
- invasion
problems caused in the Western Roman Empire due to geography
it's size made it difficult to defend and administer
economic problems in the Western Roman Empire
the cost of defense and the devaluation of Roman currency
military problems in the Western Roman Empire
increasing reliance on foreigners to serve in & lead the Roman army
political problems in the Western Roman Empire
civil conflict and weak administration
Why the Roman population was declining
as a result of epidemic diseases
Constantine moved the capital of Rome to -
Byzantium
new name for Byzantium
Constantinople
year the Western Roman Empire ended
476 CE
the Eastern Roman Empire was also known as -
Byzantine Empire

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