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Europe's Size & Location

• 2/3 land area of North America
• 2.4 million square miles
• 41 countries
• upper mid- and high northern latitudes
• 35°N & 75°N

Europe is Located on What Plate?

The Caribbean Plate

Europe's 4 Major Landform Regions

o Eastern Lowlands (North European Plain)
o Alpine Mountains
o Central Uplands
o Western Highlands

Eastern Lowlands (North European Plain)

southwest > northeast, France > Poland; elevations mostly below 500 feet; formerly glaciated in North; moraines

Alpine Mountains

southeast > southwest, Atlantic > Black Sea; higher elevations in east; 20 million years old (youngest); Alpide Belt (Formed by the colliding of African & European Plates

Central Uplands

southwest > northwest; between Alps and lowlands, France/ Germany; elevations up to 6k feet; 100 million years old

Western Highlands

southwest > northwest, Portugal > U.K. > Scandinavia; elevations up to 4k feet; 600 million years old (oldest)

Mt. Blanc

• Highest Peak

o 15,782 feet peak; 11th highest in world
o Graian Alps subrange near Italy/ France border
o Mer de Glance (Sea of Ice) Glacier: above 7.9k feet elevation, 4.3 million miles long, 600 feet deep; shrinking
o Electricity of France (EDF)
o Recreation site: 100 annual climber fatalities, 6-8k total

Electricity of France (EDF)

• The EDP has drilled holes into the glacier to retrieve water
• Water is used for generators to power parts of Europe

Europe's Climate Regions

• Monthly temperature and precipitation; shaped by latitudes, topography, wind and ocean currents
o C & D type climates dominate, E types in North
o Impacts on humans: settlement, migration, agriculture, reaction

Europe's 5 major, bordering seas

• Baltic Sea
• North Sea
• Mediterranean Sea
• Adriatic Sea
• Aegean Sea

Danube River

• Danube River is a drainage basin
• longest, 1,795 miles; 30th in world, 10 country borders
• Northern and eastern slopes of the Alps contribute water to the river

Europe's Vegetation

• Shaped majorly by difference in latitudes
• Tundra (North): permafrost
• Coniferous (boreal) forest
• Mixed forest (Southwest): coniferous
• Deciduous forest (Southwest)
• Grass steppe (Southeast)
• Mediterranean forest (Borders mountain ranges in South)

Europe's Environmental Health

- impacted by human activities: population growth, agriculture, deforestation, mining, industrialization, political economy

Environmental Impacts

- air/water pollution
- global warming
- climate change
- ecological change

Environmental Remediation Methods

- prevention and control
- water treatment
- emissions controls
- recycling
- resource distribution

Political Economic Response to Environmental Issues

- west to east, European Union supports regional cooperation over individual state responses
- setting goals 8-10% below 1990 on emission levels, cap and trade
- "Green" technology

Deforestation in Latvia

- Latvia's forest account for 30-40% of its total GDP
- Wood from Latvia was used to build the Olympic stadium in England
- Loggers in Latvia are taking out a large part of the land's trees, and at this rate there can be no sustainability for the future

Europe's Population

- 629 million
- Highest densities in industrial core areas (England, France, Belgium, Germany)
- Slow natural growth, low birth rate & RNI
- 4th phase DTM
- Growth attributed to immigration

Europe's Push and Pull Factors

- Economic
- Political
- Culture
- Ex: Post WWII recovery, post-Soviet Union, European Union

Europe's Industrial Revolution

- 1750-1850
- Began with textile mills in Yorkshire, England
- 1820s: expands to continental Europe near coalfields
- increased mechanization, steam engine (1769), steam ships, increased production & transportation
colonialism & imperialism brought new raw materials from outside Europe, stimulated industry & economy

Economic & Political partnerships in Europe

- spread from the west
1952 - European Coal & Steel Community (ECSC)
1957 - European Economic Community (EEC)
1965 - European Community (EC)
1999 - European Monetary Union

Maastricht Treat (1992)

- Formed the European Union
- Led to the creation of the Euro
- Established the 3 pillars of the European Union

3 Pillars of the European Union

- economy, society, & environment
- foreign policy & military matters
- fighting crime

Lisbon Treaty

- merged the 3 pillars
- established President of European Council

English Defense League (EDL)

- anti-immigrant & anti-Muslim street protest movement, formed in 2009

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