Jensen and Laurie - Full Glossary

Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 175
Terms in this set (175)
A process of research involving an iterative cycle of theory-driven action that is evaluated, with research results feeding into further changes in practice that can then be evaluated. This approach can be conducted by researchers or by practitioners to inform and evaluate improvements in their own settings, for example to benefit outcomes for patients, clients and customers.
An appendix is a section of additional material placed at the end of your research report containing information that may not be critical to your main discussion but could be important for your readers to consult if needed. Information that would 'clutter' your main discussion, but is still necessary to include, can be placed in an appendix. For example, an appendix could include anonymized transcripts or a copy of your survey form.
Background informationFacts, figures, records, visual images, brochures, website information, etc. that are not the specific focus of your analysis but still help you understand the issue you're researching. You cite this information just like other literature, with full references provided in your bibliography/references section.Big dataBig data research involves very large sample sizes. For example, you may be analysing thousands of tweets sent as a result of a breaking news event.Boolean searchA type of web search carried out using the words AND, OR and NOT to find more relevant search results.Buffer questionsThese can be used to reset the (calm) tone of the interview if the conversation becomes heated, as a result of the participant becoming defensive or offended. Buffer questions should be on non-threatening topics so that the participant can answer confidently, and they should be on issues that the participants enjoys speaking about.Central tendencyThis is the typical pattern in your data, which can be assessed by calculating the mean or median.Chi-square testThis test is used when you want to evaluate whether two categorical variables are related.CleaningEnsures that the format of the data is consistent and makes analysis easier and quicker. For example, you may need to clean your data to ensure that all dates are written in the dd-mm-yy format, as opposed to any other variation.Closed-ended questionA survey question where respondents choose from a limited range of pre-specified response options.CodebookA document that contains a list and associated descriptions of all the codes used in a given research project.CodingThe process of systematically converting qualitative content into quantitative data by categorizing raw data using a limited number of standardized categories that are suitable for analysis.CompetenceResearch competence improves over time, with experience and self-reflection. Your research should always be conducted to the highest standards, and to ensure this you shouldn't attempt complex tasks that you don't yet feel ready to handle.CompileGathering data you have collected for your research in a central, organized location so you can see what you have gathered and what is missing before you begin analysis.Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS)Software specifically designed to help you analyse qualitative data, such as NVivo and ATLAS.ti.ConfidentialityIf you offer participants confidentiality, that means you know who they are but you promise to keep their information private and not to publish their names or associate them with what they have said when you write up your research report.ConfidentialityPart of your ethical duty as a researcher is to ensure that your participants are aware of your confidentiality policy. In general, this means that anything they tell you cannot be used outside the specific research parameters that the participant understands and agrees to allow. However, this does not always apply; for example, if children are in danger you are legally obliged to protect them. You must tell your participants at the beginning of your study if you cannot maintain confidentiality.ConfidentialityResearch data are often confidential, meaning participants share their experiences on the condition that their personal information and knowledge will remain anonymous. Research methods like focus groups make confidentiality harder.CorrelationThe extent to which two variables have a relationship dependent on each other. For example, there is a correlation between eating high quantities of fatty foods and gaining weight.Cost-benefit analysisThe weighing up of research quality against the benefits you will gain by using such research.Cramér's VThis test is used as a follow-up after a statistically significant chi-square result to determine the size of the effect.CredibilityThis refers to the combination of qualities such as being trustworthy, reliable and honest.Cross-sectional researchThe analysis of individuals' perspectives at a specific point in time; for example, a survey of voter satisfaction with the performance of their national leaders.Cross-sectional surveyA survey that collects information reflecting a single point in time.DataIn this chapter data is what you systematically analyse. You can either gather data yourself (primary data collection) or use what other people have gathered for different reasons (secondary analysis).Data codingThe process of categorizing data for analysis.Data extractThis term is used to describe a quotation or equivalent piece of qualitative data that is presented directly in a qualitative research report to represent a pattern identified by the researcher.Data managementThe process of managing and coordinating data for your research project to ensure that you know what you have collected, what still needs to be gathered, where different information is located, and how best to analyse it.Demand characteristicsRespondents tend to alter their answers based on what they believe to be the expectations of the situation or the researcher's preferred result.Demographic questionA question about the objective characteristics of the respondents (e.g., gender, ethnicity, religious affiliation).Dependent variableThe variable that is changed or altered in a study. For example, the amount of exercise, the voting preference or the amount eaten can all be changed in a study. The easiest way to remember the difference between dependent and independent variables is to insert the variables into the following sentence: (your independent variable) brings about a change in (your dependent variable) and it is not possible for (your dependent variable) to bring about a change in (your independent variable).Descriptive statisticsMathematical methods used to summarize and interpret data properties. They are distinct from inferential statistics in that they do not infer the properties of the population. For example, the percentage of goals scored during a football season is a descriptive statistic of individual player or team performance.Deviant-case analysisA method of quality control where you specifically seek out deviant cases in your data, the cases that do not conform to the predominant body of findings, and explore why they do not conform. Through this process you are able to test the strength of your findings. You may ultimately redefine your views, recode data in light of the deviant cases, or cite the cases in your research as deviant with an explanation of why.Dictation softwareTechnology to assist with transcription; the software enables you to read something into a device which then types it out for you.Digital footprintThe trail your activity leaves online, for instance all the websites you have visited in a given day.Discourse analysisThis is a qualitative research method associated with the perspective that our reality is socially constructed through discourse, that is, through the link between words, thoughts and social structures. Many different types of analysis are called 'discourse analysis' so you may need a more specific term to indicate what type of discourse analysis you're using(e.g., critical discourse analysis).DiscussionThe discussion section should re-establish the focus of your research, summarize the key findings from your results section, and take those results further by discussing their significance and implications, especially about how they relate to existing literature and theory. This section should not introduce any new evidence.Distancing strategyThis is a tactic to aid the asking of difficult or controversial questions. By phrasing the question in a way that ensures the respondent doesn't think that you are judging them, you can avoid some tricky situations. For example, saying 'it is thought that' rather than asking someone directly about something could avoid this situation.Ecological fallacyThe commonly held, but wrong, idea that group-level patterns apply to all the individuals in the group.EmergenceA feature of qualitative sampling and data collection defined by following relevant but unexpected patterns that crop up during qualitative data collection or analysis.Emotional well-beingThis refers to your state of mind, which can be affected by emotionally challenging research situations. For instance, you may find your participants' personal accounts to be distressing, upsetting or disturbing - all of which might negatively affect your emotional state.Ethics committeeThis is the body from which you have to gain approval for your research before you can begin. They ensure that your research plan is legally and ethically compliant and can help you to improve your plan where necessary.Evaluation researchA type of social research focusing on the effects of interventions and programmes within social, policy, learning and business contexts. The focus on testing the intended objectives of the intervention distinguishes this type of social research from other approaches.FacilitatorSee moderator.False conclusionWhen a summary or research findings are reached through flawed logic or faulty methods.Field notesNotes taken by a researcher during research. These notes may refer to interesting points identified during research, relevant body language or participant gestures and general thoughts made throughout the process of data collection. Field notes can also be used to initiate further discussion or expand on points, or used later on in a follow-up focus group.FieldworkThis is conducting research 'in the real world'; you are in a certain community as opposed to conducting desk research.File nameThe name given to a document saved on a computer. All file names should follow the same format and allow for instant identification as to the contents of the file.Focus groupA research method that involves sets of participants interacting in a group discussion or activity concerning a chosen topic. Focus groups can be both structured and semi-structured. Focus groups should be mediated by a moderator or group of moderators to ensure content discussed is relevant to the research topic.Focus groupsThis is a method of research in which three or more participants take part in an extended group discussion about a given issue.GatekeepersIndividuals who know and have influence over a pool of potential respondents.GeneralizationThe process of making evidence-based knowledge claims that apply to people and situations that were not captured in your data set.Grounded theoryThis approach to qualitative research is based on the idea of the researcher starting the process with a blank slate. The goal is to begin with data, rather than with reading about the existing research and theory on a topic. The goal with this kind of approach is to build up from data to a mid-level theoretical explanation about your topic.HarmParticipating in your research may cause some participants psychological, emotional or, in extreme cases, physical harm. For instance, participants may feel abused if their right to privacy is not honoured. Your primary concern is to protect their well-being, so you always need to abide by ethical guidelines.HypothesisThe null hypothesis, usually denoted H0, states that there is no association/relationship between the variables, while the alternative hypothesis, denoted H1, states that there is an association/relationship between the variables.IdentifiersThese can be added to all documents, such as survey responses, to aid instant identification of the provenance of the document.Independent variableThe variable that stands alone and is not changed by any process in your analysis. For example, someone's age could be an independent variable and is not going to change no matter how much exercise they do, how they vote or what they eat.InferenceThe logical process of drawing conclusions and generalizations from available evidence.Inferential statisticsMathematical methods that are based on probability theory to deduce or infer the properties of a population larger than that of the sample tested. This is done, for example, by testing hypotheses and deriving estimates.Informational interviewThis interview type is almost entirely unstructured and is loosely based around the research area. Participants are selected because they are likely to be able to point you in the right direction for your research. This interview type can be valuable at an early stage of research when you don't know much about your topic.Informed consentThe process of ensuring that respondents know all the necessary information about your research before agreeing to take part.Informed consentYou need to secure informed consent from your participants before commencing any research with them. This involves making them fully aware of the purpose of the research, the parties involved, what is expected of them, who will see their data and how it will be stored. Consent is usually recorded with a signed declaration. You can only proceed in a manner that they agree with. For example, if they are happy to answer your questions, but don't wish to be recorded, then you have to respect their decision.Insider researchThis is when you conduct research within a community or setting with which you are personally or professionally familiar.IntegrityResearch integrity is very important; by abiding with ethical principles, you can ensure that the reputation of your work, your institution and yourself remain in good stead.InterviewsA method of research whereby you have an extended, somewhat structured face-to-face conversation with an individual, during which you ask them questions.IntroductionThe first main section of a report, usually made up of a background discussion that identifies the broader research context, the clear identification of the research problem and why it matters, and your proposed solution to this problem.Jefferson transcriptionA transcription method that employs symbols to convey changes in intonation, volume and other mannerisms.Journal databaseElectronic journal databases are a key method of sourcing literature for your review. Most are easily accessible and searchable, and your library will often have access to hundreds of different journals. Some journal databases even offer the option of downloading a citation directly into your citation software.Leading questionA question that has a biased structure and implies that one answer is the correct or expected response to the given question. Leading questions can skew your research findings and are considered to produce very poor data.Legal requirementsThese differ from research ethics (below). When seeking approval for your project, your institution will outline what you are and aren't legally allowed to do. For example, you may legally be allowed to interview an adult who is not vulnerable, but if in the interview you find that the participant is experiencing a high level of distress then continuing with the interview would conflict with your ethical duty to protect your participants.Likert scaleThe sum of responses to several Likert-type items, reflecting the direction and intensity of attitudes, beliefs, etc.Likert-type itemA statement that a respondent is asked to evaluate on any subjective or objective dimension ranging from one extreme to another (e.g., from 1 - strongly disagree to 7 - strongly agree).Literature reviewA literature review goes beyond merely describing other people's research. It's an opportunity to analyse and critically evaluate existing literature so that you can apply it to your topic clearly and coherently, as well as identify gaps that your research can address.Literature reviewA literature review goes beyond merely describing other people's research. It's an opportunity to analyse and critically evaluate existing literature so that you can apply it to your topic clearly and coherently. It also allows you to identify gaps in the broader research context that your research can address.Longitudinal researchThe analysis of individuals' perspectives over a period of time. For example, a longitudinal study might follow how a set of children exposed to different childhood traumas develop into adulthood.Longitudinal surveyMultiple surveys with the same or similar questions, focused on investigating change over time.MeanResult of dividing the sum of the values by the total number of cases to give an average of all values.MedianThe exact mid-point in your data.Memo writingThe process of recording emerging thoughts, ideas, connections, areas of future research and links to theoretical concepts and other literature that arise when coding qualitative data. Memos are an integral feature in most qualitative data analysis software.MethodsA detailed report of your sampling, data collection and data analysis decisions and processes. This should have sufficient information that someone else would be able to replicate your approach.Mixed methods researchAlso referred to as 'combed research methods', this term describes the use of more than one research method in a single research project. This often involves using quantitative and qualitative methods in a coordinated manner to gain from the strengths, while mitigating the weaknesses, of each method.ModeThe most frequently occurring attribute in your data.Moderator (or facilitator)A moderator leads interview or focus group discussions. This role includes providing topics and questions for the participants to discuss and guiding group discussions to ensure all participants have an opportunity to speak. Although an important role, moderators must judge when to intervene and when to allow the discussion to unfold.Multiple choice ('select one') questionA closed-ended survey question that only allows for one response.Multiple choice ('tick all that apply') questionA closed-ended survey question that allows for multiple responses.Neutral phrasingThis is important, especially when discussing sensitive topics with your participants. This involves using non-judgemental language and ensuring that your questioning or comments do not offend your participants. An offended participant is unlikely to be willing to continue the conversation or give meaningful answers!NVivoA brand of computer-aided qualitative analysis software.Open-ended questionA survey question where respondents generate their own responses.OperationalizationThe process of defining how you will measure something (usually an abstract concept).Outsider researchThis is when you conduct research in a setting or community with which you are not familiar.Participant observationA method of research in which you observe individuals in a setting from the position of someone participating in whatever activities are taking place in that setting.Pattern analysisThe term we are using to refer to the method of qualitative analysis presented in detail in this chapter. The method we articulate here is not taken from a single approach in the methodological literature, but it does correspond to often-used practices in published qualitative research across different social science disciplines. We have presented this approach because we feel it is straightforward and usable across social scientific disciplines.Peer reviewPeer review is the accepted method of scrutiny of academic work by other academics, in order to hold research publications within the discipline to a high standard. Work that has been peer-reviewed can be seen as more reliable than work which has not been critically assessed by peer review.Pilot studyThis is a small, preliminary project, designed to minimize the risk of encountering negative outcomes in your main research project. Pilot studies are a good way of practising before you commence your project in its entirety; they can be seen as a 'trial run'.Pilot testingThe process of administering, and gaining feedback on, all or part of your survey prior to the main survey, in order to confirm that the intended meaning of your survey questions are clear to your respondents and that any directions you provide can be easily and accurately followed.PopulationThe group of people that your research is designed to generate knowledge about.Preferred phrasing/termsThis is the language that your participants like to use about themselves. Before you start your research you should consult with gatekeepers or your participants themselves about which words they like to use. Asking such questions would be advisable when, for example, conducting research with transgender participants, who may well have a preference as to which personal pronouns ('he' or 'she') you use.Primary researcherThe researcher who initially collects the data.PrivacyBoth your participants and you as researcher are entitled to privacy. This means that you should not push respondents too hard if they appear unwilling to divulge personal information. It also means that you are not obliged to respond to their questions about your personal life, but should be prepared in case they do so.ProfessionalismEstablishing yourself as competent and knowledgeable when approaching individuals.Public or open-source dataData freely available to anyone.Purposive samplingA non-probability sampling technique for selecting participants based on theory or the researcher's judgement and prior research.Qualitative researchA category of social research that refers to methods of data collection and analysis that use words, images, observations and other non-numerical data. Major qualitative research methods include focus groups, in-depth interviews and ethnography.Qualitative researchQualitative research prioritizes personal interpretations and meaning over such quantitative ideals as objectivity and standardization. Quantitative research is more focused on gaining insights into participant's thoughts, behaviours and experiences.Quantitative researchA category of social research that refers to methods of data collection and analysis that use numerical data.QuestionnaireA research method involving participants answering a number of questions in a written format. Questionnaires can be self-completed or can be completed with the assistance of a researcher.Ranked-response questionA survey question where respondents are asked to rank a finite series of items according to some stated criteria, from highest to lowest.RapportA close, open relationship developed between the moderator and participants in an interview or between participants in a focus group. Moderators should always try and establish a rapport with participants as it makes the research process seem more natural and is likely to yield richer and more valuable data.RapportA trusting relationship you can develop with an individual.Raw dataInformation that has come directly from the respondent and has not been altered or edited by anyone else. Keeping copies of raw data is essential, as mistakes can be made during data preparation and analysis. By storing the raw data, you always have the original to check back against.ReferencesA way of acknowledging the books, papers, audio-visual and other sources you use in your research. The use of references helps to credit other researchers' work, explains to your readers from where you have drawn ideas and information, and helps to critique, substantiate and inform your own research. Follow the referencing style preferred by your department or institution. Referencing software will make this process much easier to manage.ReflexivityA method of quality assurance where you as the researcher acknowledge your central role in the knowledge generation process and identify areas where you may have biases, preconceived notions or other ideas that may influence your interpretation of the data.Refusals loggingThe systematic capturing and reporting of information about who refused to participate in your survey and why.ReliabilityA prerequisite to validity; refers to the extent to which the measures you use, and the data you collect, provide consistent results.Report templateA document set up in your preferred word processor that includes the selected fonts, formatting and styles for your report. It may also include sections such as Title page, Abstract, Table of Contents, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion and References where you can start to place relevant content.Representative sampleA sample that has characteristics closely matching those of the population from which it is drawn.Research decisionsChoices you make throughout the research project and the reasons behind making them, or abandoning other options.Research designThe plan detailing how you will answer your research question(s). Good research design decision-making requires understanding both your range of options and how to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each option.Research designThe structure and planning required before you start collecting any data. Your research design asks 'how will I try to answer my research question?' This will involve assessing what data or information already exists on the topic and how to make sure your research will be of a high quality.Research ethicsThese define how you should act towards your participants throughout the course of your project. Their well-being is always paramount, and you have a responsibility to cause no harm as a result of your research project.Research notesThese are essential to any project and will record decisions, categories, shorthand and coding choices. The more notes you make of decisions you take at the time, the easier writing up will be in the future.Research questionThe central question that your research seeks to answer. This question provides the guiding focus for your project.Research questionYour research question is the specific question your research will be asking. Often your research question is informed by assessing other research in the field and identifying gaps in research which you can contribute to, and so your research question is usually presented at the end of your literature review.Research timelineIdentifies major milestones so you can effectively plan your project, assess the feasibility of your goals, and determine whether you are on schedule.Researcher expectancy effectResearchers unintentionally introduce bias by using survey questions and response options based on their existing assumptions about the topic they are researching.ResultsThe results of your research and analysis, that is, what you found out after gathering and analysing your data. The number of results sections you have will be dependent on the size of your study, but each results section should focus on one key issue and be laid out in a logical sequence.Risks to the researcherThese can be either avoidable or unforeseen events that can pose a problem, or cause harm to you throughout the course of your research. Such events can cause emotional harm, endanger your personal safety or damage your personal property.SampleA subset of the population you are wishing to study that is manageable in size and accessibility, given the constraints of your project.Sampling errorThe gap between your population's characteristics and your sample's characteristics. It's impossible to have a sample that perfectly reflects the population, no matter how robust your sampling method. Probability sampling ensures that you can know the likelihood of error, but it will always be present.Sampling frameA list of all the members of a population who can be sampled. That is, the group of people from which a sample can be drawn.SaturationA technique used in qualitative research to determine when data collection can stop. The saturation point is when new cases you collect (e.g. newly conducted interviews) are not broadening or deepening the information you have already gathered from previous participants or observations. This saturation point signals that you can stop your qualitative data collection.Search planA search plan is a plan of key search words and phrases, including synonyms, slang terms, alternative spellings and foreign languages that you can put together before beginning your search for literature for your review, to ensure that you cover all relevant literature.Secondary analysisthis is when you use data collected by another researcher to inform your own work. For example, you may use data collected by the Office for National Statistics in a report you write, as the sample size is likely to be far greater than anything you could collect on your own.Self-administered surveyA survey where respondents are required to read the survey instructions and questions for themselves and respond on paper or screen without a researcher's active participation.Semi-structured interviewInterviews structured around a list of unordered open-ended questions and follow-ups. These interviews are more natural and conversational, and open-ended questions allow participants to answer more freely and openly based on their own knowledge and experiences.Snowball samplingA non-probability method of sampling in which you recruit new participants from the acquaintances of individuals who have already taken part in your research.Snowball samplingA non-probability sampling technique that involves using existing respondents to identify more respondents.Social desirability biasRespondents try to hide their true views or behaviours to make themselves look better (to both themselves and the researcher) by overreporting views and behaviours that are widely praised in society and underreporting those that are not.StakeholdersPeople or organizations who have an interest in a certain topic. For instance, if you wish to conduct research on the automotive industry, key stakeholders would include manufacturers and engineers, amongst others.Standard deviationA standardized measure of the variability in the sample. It tells you how good a 'fit' there is between the full data set and the mean as a measure of central tendency.Standardization, surveyEvery respondent is asked the exact same questions in exactly the same way.Standardized transcriptionTranscription that removes all the non-verbal speech elements, such as pauses and fillers (e.g., 'um' and 'err').Statistical inferenceThe process of drawing conclusions about a larger population based on statistical data from a smaller sample.Statistical softwareComputer programs, such as SPSS and STATA, that specialize in analysing statistical data. These purpose-built programs make it far easier for you to carry out a host of basic analyses from descriptive statistics to more complex regressions.StigmaSome lifestyles, habits or communities are stigmatized or have a history of stigmatization by society. This is when something is seen as socially undesirable by 'the mainstream', and often such people or habits are avoided, looked down on, or cast out entirely. For example, being gay or lesbian has historically carried a social stigma.StressOn occasion, research can cause you stress if it is emotionally or psychologically challenging. This can also have a detrimental effect on your research, in three ways: it can distort your research perspective; it can lead you to believe that upsetting incidents are more widespread than they are; and it could make you identify too closely with your participants.Structured interviewInterviews that rely on a fixed list of questions that have identical phrasing and are asked in the same order, and where participants select answers from a pre-defined group of responses.SurveysA method of research in which participants answer a series of questions, either through filling out a paper survey or being asked by an interviewer.Table of contentsA detailed, but short and clear, overview of the major headings in your report.Theoretical frameworkThe theoretical framework of a piece of research is the philosophical basis and assumptions within which the research takes place. For example, you may be approaching your research from a 'realist' or 'positivist' standpoint. It is sometimes necessary in your literature review to critique the theoretical framework that other researchers have used.Thick descriptionA quality assurance technique where you provide the reader with extended verbatim extracts from your data. This way the reader can have a broader perspective on the context of the quotations and so can decide to what extent you have made an accurate interpretation of the participant's account.Title pageThe first page of your report that includes the report title, your name, institution, department and date of report submission. It may also include contact details, as well as other relevant information specifically requested by your institution.TranscriptionThe written form of speech, such as an interview.Transcription (or transcript)The written-out version of recorded interviews or focus group discussions. Researchers often translate their research into a textual form to make data analysis easier.Transparency and procedural clarityA quality assurance method in which researchers keep records, clear descriptions and evidence of their key decision-making to enable themselves (and potentially others) to assess their procedural pathway through their research.TriangulationThe use of several research methods or several pieces of data to give a more complete and deep answer to your research question.t-testAnalysis of two population means used to understand whether or not the difference between the means of two populations is significant. For example, a t-test could help you determine if there is a significant difference in alcohol consumption between men and women.Type I errorThis is a false positive, when a null hypothesis is accepted that should be rejected.Type II errorThis is a false negative, when a null hypothesis that should be rejected fails to be rejected.Univariate analysisSimplest form of statistical analysis, used to describe a single variable.ValidityEssentially this is the social scientific term for 'accuracy'. Valid research findings are those that closely correspond to the objective or subjective reality (depending on your research question) of the situation you are studying.ValidityThe extent to which the information you gather from your survey respondents accurately represents the concept you are studying.Variable typeThere are three main types of variable: categorical/nominal, ordinal and interval. Categorical variables have no intrinsic ordering to them. Gender, ethnicity and hair colour categories (e.g., blonde, brunette, ginger) are examples of categorical variables: male and female are just categories, not an attribute you can have more or less of. Ordinal variables do have an intrinsic order. However, the steps between each value are not equal. For example, educational qualifications are ordered (some are higher or lower than others) but the steps between qualifications are not equal. The step from bachelor's degree to master's is not the same as from master's to doctorate. Interval variables have intrinsic ordering and the steps between each value are equal. For example, money (e.g., US dollars) is this kind of data. An interval variable is similar to an ordinal variable, except that the intervals between the values of the interval variable are equally spaced.Verbally administered surveyThe individual administering the survey talk through all aspects of the survey, including both direction, questions and response choices.Verbatim transcriptionTranscription that records the interview word for word and includes non-verbal cues such as pauses and fillers (e.g., 'um' and 'err').Vulnerable peopleYou may need to do research with vulnerable people, who might find involvement in your research particularly stressful, or who may not be able to understand the process sufficiently to be able to give fully informed consent. Examples of vulnerable groups include children, the elderly, people with learning difficulties, and people who do not share your first language.