the basic unit of matter
a negatively charged particle
atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain
their nuclei are unstable and break down at a constant rate of time
a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
form when electrons are shared between atoms
the smallest unit of most compounds
van der Waals forces
when molecules are close together, a slight attraction can develop between the oppositely charged regions of attraction (van der Waals forces)
a molecule in which the charges are unevenly distributed
an attraction between molecules of the same substance
an attraction between molecules of different substances
a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
the substance that is dissolved
the substance that dissolves
mixture of water and nondissolved material
it ranges from 0-14
they contain higher concentrations of hydrogen ions than pure water and have pH values below 7
they contain lower concentrations of hydrogen ions than pure water and have pH values of above 7
weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
the smaller units of macromolecules
the larger units of macromolecules (monomers combine to form this)
compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
single sugar molecules
the large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides
made mostly of carbon and hydrogen atoms
macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
nucleic acids are polymers assembled from individual monomers know as this.
macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
proteins are polymers of molecules called this.
the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
the energy that is needed to get a reaction started
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
proteins that act as biological catalysts
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