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56 terms

POLSC Chapter 12

Gateways to Democracy
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Approval Rating
Job performance evaluation for the president, Congress, or other public official or institution that is generated by public opinion polls and typically reported as a percentage
Bully Pulpit
Nickname for the power of the president to use the attention associated with the office to persuade the media, Congress, and the public to support his policy position.
Cabinet Departments
Executive branch organizations responsible for carrying out federal policy in a specific set of issue areas
Cabinet Secretaries
Heads of cabinet departments and chief advisers to the president on the issues under their jurisdiction.
Chief of Staff
Person who coordinates and oversees interactions among the president, his personal staff, and his cabinet secretaries
Civil Servants
Federal employees hired through a merit based system to implement federal programs and who are expected to be neutral in their political affiliation.
Clemency
General power of president to grant mercy for a federal criminal offense
Cold War (1948-89)
Economic competition and political conflict between Communist and democratic nations
Commutation
Decision to shorten a federal prison sentence
Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
President's personal set of advisers on the economy.
Court-packing Plan
President Franklin Roosevelt's proposal to add new justices to the Supreme Court so that the Court would uphold his policies
Divided Government
Situation when one party controls the executive and the other party controls the legislature.
Executive Office of the President
Organization that houses all staff who work directly for the president.
Executive Order
Presidential directive that usually involves implementing a specific law
Executive Privilege
President's right to engage confidential communications with this advisers.
Federal Budget
Budget of all federal programs, typically released by the president in early February
Federal Budget Deficit
Difference between the amount of money the federal government spends in outlays and the amount of money it receives from revenues.
Federal Register
Official published record of all executive branch rules, regulations, and orders.
Federal Reserve Board
Independent regulatory commission that affects the money supply by setting the reserve requirements of member banks, establishing a discount rate for loans to members banks, and buying or selling government securities
Fireside Chat
Radio addresses by President Franklin D Roosevelt that were the first regular communications from the president to a large portion of the American public.
Fiscal Policy
Means of controlling the money supply through taxing and spending
Geneva Conventions
Set of treaties that define lawful military combar and protect the rights of prisoners of war.
Great Society
Lyndon B Johnson's program for expanding the federal social welfare programs in health care, education, and house, and ending poverty.
Head of State
Title given to the president as national leader
Impeachment
Process whereby the House brings charges against the president (or other federal officials) that will, upon conviction by the Senate, remove him from office.
Imperial Presidency
Power of the president to speak for the nation on the world stage and to set the policy agenda at home.
Inflation
Condition in which money supply and higher wages leads to large increases in prices
Internal Revenue Service
Executive branch agency that collects federal taxes
Lame Duck
Term-limited official in his or her last term of office
Military Orders
Presidential directive that gives instructions to a branch of the armed forces
Military Tribunal
Specially created court that determines the innocence or guilt of enemy combatants
Monetary Policy
Means of controlling the money supply through control of interest rates and availability of credit, managed by a central bank, the Federal Reserve.
National Debt
Sum of loans and interest that the federal government has accrued over time to pay for the federal deficit.
National Security Council (NSC)
President's personal set of advisers on international security
Natural-Born Citizen
Citizen in a nation from birth, usually by being born there.
New Deal
Franklin D Roosevelt's program for ending the Great Depression through government intervention in the economy and a set of safety-net programs for workers.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
President's budget office
Omnibus Bills
Lengthy pieces of legislation that include provisions affecting a wide range of programs
Override
Congress' power to overturn a presidential veto with a two-thirds vote in each chamber.
Pardon
Full forgiveness for a crime.
Pocket Veto
Automatic veto that occurs when Congress goes out of session within ten days of submitting a bill to the president and the president has no signed it.
Political Appointees
Individuals appointed to federal jobs by the president with the explicitly task of carrying out his political and partisan agenda.
President Pro-Tempore
Constitutional leader of the Senate
Presidential Directive
Official instructions from the president regarding federal policy.
Presidential Directive on National Security
Presidential directive that deals with government action in the area of foreign policy and is not publicly released
Proclamation
Presidential directive usually issued to declare a change in federal policy
Recession
Downturn in economic activity, with declines in employment levels, income, retail spending, and industrial production.
Signing Statements
Written remarks issued by the president when signing a bill into law that often reflect his interpretation of how the law should be implemented.
Speaker of the House
Constitutional and political leader of the House
State of the Union Address
Speech given by the president to Congress every January on the condition of the country
Subpoena
Orders issued by a legal authority demanding that an individual appear to testify at, or turn over documents relevant to, a legal proceeding
Term Limits
Limits on the number of elected terms an elected official may serve.
Veto
Authority of the president to block legislation passed by Congress.
War Powers Act (1973)
Provides that the president cannot send troops into military conflict for more than 90 days without seeking a formal declaration of war from Congress.
Watergate Scandal (1972-74)
Scandal uncovered by Washington Post reporters that led to the resignation of President Richard M Nixon.
White House Office
President's personal staff organization