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Define the terms anatomy and physiology
Anatomy - the study of the structure of the animal body and the relationship among its parts
Physiology - the study of how the body functions
Use anatomical terms to indicate correctly the orientation and location of body parts
See pages 10-12 in study guide
Distinguish cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems both structurally and functionally
Cells - basic structure of life that is the building block of everything
Tissues - Many cells together that increase the speed, efficiency, and ability with which cellular tasks are performed
Organs - Different types of tissues working together to form sturctures within the body
Organ Systems - collection of organs that perform an essential functon for the body
List the tissue types that comprise the integument and describe the function of each cell type
Comprised of all four tissue types:
Epithelial Tissue - sheets of cells that cover the external surfaces of the body
Muscle tissue - attached to hair follicles to increase insulation and make the animal appear larger
Connective Tissue - carry oxygen and nutrients and control body temperature
Nervous Tissue - control movement stimulating muscles, makes you aware of how the skin feels and what it is touching
List the structures that comprise the integumentary system and describe the function of each
Epidermis - outermost layer to protect
Dermis - provide both structural and nutrirional support
Hypodermis/Subcutaneous layer - stores fat, helps regulate body temperature and supports the other layers
Hair - provides warmth, protects from damage, and gives distinctive markings
Glands - help soften, keep pliable, provide a protective film, and help regulate body temperature
Claws and Dewclaws - improve traction during locomotion, defense, help with food
Hooves - for locomotion, defense
Identify the parts of the skeletal system and discuss functions and interrelationships
Axial Skeleton - forms the central supporting structure for the body's organs and protection for delicate structures
Appendicular Skeleton - support and propulsion
Visceral Skeleton - bones within soft tissues to provide support
Joints - hold bones together and five the skeleton flexibility and ability to move
List the three major classes of joints and explain the sturcture of each
Synarthrosis - fibrous tissue that unite bones at the suture line
Amphiarthrosis - cartilaginous joint that allows only slight rocking movement
Diarthrosis - spongy consistency to help absorb shock, but smooth to reduce friction on the surface and fibrous tissue that secretes fluid on the lining of the joint
Compare and contrast the three types of muscle tissue, their structures, and their function
Skeletal or Striated muscle - most abundant in the body, looks to have striations, under voluntary control, move the body
Smooth or Visceral muscle - in internal organs, has contracle fibers with no striations, smaller cells, under involuntary control, conduct peristalsis
Cardiac muscle - found only in the heart, somewhat striated, but much smaller cells, specialized to conduct electrical impulses and undergo consisitent rhythmic contractions
Describe the mechanism of muscle contraction
Contraction proceeds in three phases. Timing of impulses from the nervous system to the motor units of the muscle results in slight variation in the initiation of the concentration impulses to the muscle so that they're occuring at slightly different times to allow smooth muscle contraction.
Discuss the functional groupings of muscles
Supraspinatus muscle - an extensor muscle of the shoulder joint
Infraspinatus muscle, flexes the shoulder joint
Pectoral Muscles - abduct the leg
Trapezius muscle - abducts the leg and elevates it
Biceps brachii - flexes elbow, extends shoulder
Brachialis - flexes elbow
Triceps brachii - extends elbow
Gluteal Muscles - extend and abduct the hip
Biceps femoris - extends hip, stifle and tarsus
Semitendinosus - extends hip, flexes stifle, extends tarsus
Semimembranosus - extends hip
Quadriceps femoris - extensor of the stifle, flexes hip
Cranial tibial muscles - flexes tarsus, extend digits
Gastrocnemius - extends tarsus, flexes stifle
Define the terms relating to bone structure and movement
Cancellous Bone - irrecularly arranged group of bony material plates found in the bone marrow cavity
Compact bone - highly structured series of bone layers found in the outer portions of the bone
haversian canal - route through which blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves travel through compact bone
lamellae - bone layers
lacunae - small spaces randomly between lamellae
Volkmann's canals - connect one haversian canal to another at right angles to carry the same things as haversian canals
cortical bone - layers of lamellae
Explain the functions of different bones and bone types
Axial Bones forms the central supporting structures and protectioin for the body's organs
Appendicular bones support the front and back ends of the body
Visceral bones support soft tissue
Joints help hold the bones together and give the skeleton flexibility and ability to move
Describe the structural and functional characteristics of the organs of the upper and lower respiratory tracts
The upper respiratory tract consists of nostrils, nasal pasages, pharynx, larynx, and trachea to get air to and from the lungs from outside the body
The lower respiratory consists of the lungs, and the bronchi, bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, aveoli, blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics, and connective tissue in the lungs to get air to and from the lungs from the body
Describe how the respiratory system supplies oxygen to cells, including both the physical and chemical processes involved in respiration
Physically oxygen comes in by the diaphragm contracting and moving caudally to generate negative pressure. This causes the gases in the alveoli of higher concentration to move to lesser concentration until every thing is equal to then travel into the body.
Chemically the oxygen moves from the air, dissolves int eh alveolar wall, travels across the wall, and then crosses the wall of the capillary, where it dissolves in the blood and is taken into red blood cells for distribution into the body.
Explain how the process of respiration is controlled
The respiratory center is an area of nerve cells located in the brain's medulla oblongata and pons to control inspiration, expiration, and the rate and depth of breathing by detecting the level of carbon dioxide in the blood vessels passing through it.
Identify the heart's gross anatomy, including the pericardium and valves
Surrounding the heart is a sac called the pericardium that consists of two layers seperated by pericardial fluid. The muscle layer of the heart is the myocardium which is the heart's largest mass. Lining the myocardium on the inside of the heart is the endocardium. Inside the heart, the two dorsal chambers closer to the spine are the atria and the two ventral chambers closer to the sternum are the ventricles. The wall between the two sides is called the septum. Between the atrium and ventricle are the tricuspid valve and the bicuspid valve.
Describe the structural and functional differences among the vessels of the circulatory system
All blood vessels have the same general structure where the outer layer is made of connective tissue, the middle layer is smooth muscle, and the inner layer is composed of epithelial cells.
Arteries carry blood from the heart to the cells and establish the blood pressure in the circulatory system.
Arterioles carry blood from the muscular arteries to the capillaries.
Capillaries are tiny vessels that supply blood to the body's tissue.
Veins carry blood from the cells to the heart.
Venules carry blood fromt he capillaries to the muscular veins.
Describe the pulmonic, systemic, and fetal circulartory systems
Systemic Circulation System carrys oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and waste products away from cells.
Pulmonary Circulation System carrys carbon dioxide to the lungs and to carry oxygen away from the lungs.
Fetal Circulation System carrys blood from the fetus to the placenta to get rid of carbon dioxide and waste to pick up oxygen and nutrients by the way of the umbilical cord.
Describe the functions and structure of the lymphatic system, including its role in the immune system
Lymph nodes are bean-shpaed structures covered by the capsule that contain large numbers of lymphocytes and lymphatic vessels. The two purposes of the lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels are drainage of extracellular fluid and provision of a first line of immunity by removing infectious organisms or cancer cells. The Thymus Gland is found in young animals to aid in development of the immune system. The flat, elongated spleen removes foreign particles from the blood by red pulp, generates an immune response to infection or cancer, and removes dying blood cells as they pass through.
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