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main energy source that cells use for most of their work


compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body


energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen


nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

Vitamin A

fat soluble, helps with skin/ vision and reproduction & makes white blood cells, sources= dairy, liver, dark fruits and vegies

Vitamin D

fat soluble. the sunshine vitamin; helps your body absorb calcium to build strong bones

Vitamin E

fat soluble. that is essential for normal reproduction. important antioxidant

Vitamin K

fat soluble. helps in the clotting of blood

Vitamin C

water soluble. acts as the glue that holds cells together; strengths blood vessel walls; helps wounds heal; helps bones grow; strengthens resistance to infection but does not cure colds; an antioxidant

Vitamin B1

water soluble, thiamin. essential for normal carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Cannot be stored in the body

Vitamin B2

water soluble. riboflavin. that prevents skin lesions and weight loss

Vitamin B3

water soluble. Niacin, required for synthesis of essential coenzymes involved in energy metabolism. helps release energy from nutrients

Vitamin B6

water soluble. needed in protein metabolism. Its three water soluble. active forms are pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine. required to produce antibodies

Vitamin B5

water-soluble vitamin required in making steroid hormones and neurotransmitters. pantothenic acid

Vitamin B12

water soluble. also called cobalamin, key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood. affects DNA synthesis and regulation


water soluble. B7 vitamin; a coenzyme necessary for fat synthesis and other metabolic reactions

Folic Acid

water soluble. B9 vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction


substances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and regulating many vital body processes


All chemical reactions in the body through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes


The process that synthesizes a complex molecule from simpler compounds, thus requiring energy. endergonic - consume more energy than they produce


The sum total of all processes in an organism which break down chemicals to produce energy and simple chemical building blocks.

Cellular Respiration

the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food


first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid

Acetyl CoA

the entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration, formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.

Krebs Cycle

in all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high-energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy

Electron Transport Chain

sequence of electron carrier molecules that transfer electrons and release energy during cellular respiration


the conversion of glucose to glycogen when the glucose in the blood exceeds the demand


breakdown of glycogen to glucose


generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids The vast majority takes place in the liver and, to a smaller extent, in the cortex of kidney. This process occurs during periods of fasting, starvation, or intense exercise and is highly endergonic


creation of triglycerides (fat-- fatty acids and glycerol) - move out of bloodstream to store in adipose tissue


breakdown of triglycerides


the process of transferring the amine group from one amino acid to another in order to manufacture a new amino acid


A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.


good cholesterol, carrier protein that carries cholesterol from body to liver for processing and elimination


carrier system for saturated fat. Levels in blood should be LOW. High blood concentrations are predictors for fatal heart attack or stroke -- the higher the LDL, the earlier the episode is expected to occur.


carries triglycerides. Made when the liver can't make enough HDL and LDL. Can also mean a compromised liver.


amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environoment

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