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37 terms

Metabolism Terms

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ATP
main energy source that cells use for most of their work
Carbohydrates
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
Lipids
energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Proteins
nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Vitamin A
fat soluble, helps with skin/ vision and reproduction & makes white blood cells, sources= dairy, liver, dark fruits and vegies
Vitamin D
fat soluble. the sunshine vitamin; helps your body absorb calcium to build strong bones
Vitamin E
fat soluble. that is essential for normal reproduction. important antioxidant
Vitamin K
fat soluble. helps in the clotting of blood
Vitamin C
water soluble. acts as the glue that holds cells together; strengths blood vessel walls; helps wounds heal; helps bones grow; strengthens resistance to infection but does not cure colds; an antioxidant
Vitamin B1
water soluble, thiamin. essential for normal carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Cannot be stored in the body
Vitamin B2
water soluble. riboflavin. that prevents skin lesions and weight loss
Vitamin B3
water soluble. Niacin, required for synthesis of essential coenzymes involved in energy metabolism. helps release energy from nutrients
Vitamin B6
water soluble. needed in protein metabolism. Its three water soluble. active forms are pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine. required to produce antibodies
Vitamin B5
water-soluble vitamin required in making steroid hormones and neurotransmitters. pantothenic acid
Vitamin B12
water soluble. also called cobalamin, key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood. affects DNA synthesis and regulation
Biotin
water soluble. B7 vitamin; a coenzyme necessary for fat synthesis and other metabolic reactions
Folic Acid
water soluble. B9 vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction
Minerals
substances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and regulating many vital body processes
Metabolism
All chemical reactions in the body through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
Anabolism
The process that synthesizes a complex molecule from simpler compounds, thus requiring energy. endergonic - consume more energy than they produce
Catabolism
The sum total of all processes in an organism which break down chemicals to produce energy and simple chemical building blocks.
Cellular Respiration
the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food
Glycolysis
first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Acetyl CoA
the entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration, formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.
Krebs Cycle
in all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high-energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy
Electron Transport Chain
sequence of electron carrier molecules that transfer electrons and release energy during cellular respiration
Glycogenesis
the conversion of glucose to glycogen when the glucose in the blood exceeds the demand
Glycogenolysis
breakdown of glycogen to glucose
Gluconeogenesis
generation of glucose from non-sugar carbon substrates like pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and amino acids The vast majority takes place in the liver and, to a smaller extent, in the cortex of kidney. This process occurs during periods of fasting, starvation, or intense exercise and is highly endergonic
Lipogenesis
creation of triglycerides (fat-- fatty acids and glycerol) - move out of bloodstream to store in adipose tissue
Lipolysis
breakdown of triglycerides
Transamination
the process of transferring the amine group from one amino acid to another in order to manufacture a new amino acid
Cholesterol
A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
HDL
good cholesterol, carrier protein that carries cholesterol from body to liver for processing and elimination
LDL
carrier system for saturated fat. Levels in blood should be LOW. High blood concentrations are predictors for fatal heart attack or stroke -- the higher the LDL, the earlier the episode is expected to occur.
VLDL
carries triglycerides. Made when the liver can't make enough HDL and LDL. Can also mean a compromised liver.
BMR
amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environoment