38 terms

Carl Rodgers: Congruence and Self-Actualization

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Rodger's childhood
Family was strict - little emotional affect and virtue of hard work. Exerted influence subtly, but lovingly (it was just understood...)
Favoritism (perceived) as being shown to brother; competitive of brother
Lonely, shy, wrapped in rich fantasy life - self dependent
Rodger's later in life
-After moving to a farm, became interest in science in agriculture and statistics
-Entered ministry-became more liberal in thinking (causing differences of opinion with family and possibly ulcers
-At college-worked with delinquent and underprivileged students then pursued clinical degree - became convinced of inadequacy of abilities
-Through therapy realized own insecurities and became able to develop deep emotional relationships
-Published about theories and became president of APA - received accolades for contributions.
-Person-centered therapy
-Peace efforts
important factor to the formation of personality
the self
influence on healthy/unhealthy behavior in children
-he tested background and family environment and it proved to be lowly correlated
-Self-understanding and insight most important predictor
actualization tendency
-- Basic human motivation to actualize, maintain, and enhance.
-Includes drive for self-actualization
-Encompasses all physiological and psychological needs
-Innate - beginning in the womb
-Maintains the organism and provides for sustenance and survival.
-Organismic valuing process
organismic valuing process
how we grow through evaluations of experiences and if they promote or hinder actualization. We prefer the good and desirable and repeat them
experiential world
-How we experience the world is how we perceive it-perception is subjective.
-Phenomenology - we can only be sure of our own reality.
-Our own world view is private, but perceptions of experiences become basis from judgments and behaviors.
Self-Concept
involves image of who we are, who we should be, and who we would like to be.
Who am I?
Percieved self
Who should I be?
self with conditions
Who would I like to be?
Ideal self
Positive regard
-Learned
-Need is universal and persistent
*Acceptance
*Love
*Approval
-Guides development of personality
-If child gets positive regard (especially from mother), then infants will strive for actualization. If not, the infant will experienced hampered striving for actualization and may act in ways (potentially harmful) to receive regard from others.
If child gets positive regard (especially from mother)....
Then infants will strive for actualization
If child does not get positive regard...
the infant will experience hampered striving for actualization and may act in potentially harmful ways to recieve regard from others
unconditonal positive regard
approval regardless of behavior
positive self-regard
granting approval to ourselves; rewarding
Feedback loop (reciprocal)
-We receive satisfaction by satisfying someone else's need for positive regard.
-This makes us sensitive to others' attitudes and behaviors and through interpretation we refine our self-concept.
-Formation of self-concept involves internalization of others' attitudes.
-Positive self-regard is also reciprocal - allows us to provide positive regard to others.
Conditional positive regard
-Given only when desirable behaviors and attitudes are expressed
-Become internalized
- leads to the recognition of conditions of worth.
- price for affection, love, and approval.
conditions of worth
-how we need to behave to merit conditional positive regard (from others and selves)
-Learned inhibition of behaviors
-we are worthy only when we exhibit desirable behaviors and attitudes.
Incongruence
-When experiences don't mesh with self-concept(perceived self vs. ideal self)
-Provokes anxiety
-Leads to distortion of reality
Congruence
-function=emotional health and psychological adjustment
-accurate perception of reality and openness to new experiences.
-No need to distort perceptions because it received unconditional positive regard so did not have to internalize conditions of worth.
fully functioning persons
-self actualizing
Self actualizing=
fully funtioning
Characterizations of a fully functioning/self actualizing person
*Aware of all experiences - no distortion or defensiveness; Open to positive and negative feelings; Feel both positive and negative emotions more intensely.
*Life fully and richly - in the here-and-now - experiences perceived freshly and newly.
*Trust in own organism - trusting of and guided by own reactions, opinions, judgments and outside information can be perceived, evaluated, and weighed accurately.
*Freedom to make choices without constraints or inhibitions - responsibility for own future leads to power.
*Creative and live constructively and adaptively as environmental conditions change - able to be spontaneous in seeking experiences and reacting to events.
*May face difficulties - growth involves complexity and challenge.
Assessment
-subjective experiences
-person-centered therapy
-encounter groups
-psychological tests
subjective experiences
How we , feel, think, and react to physical activity rather than the actual performance itself.
Ex:
-Emotions
-Cognitions
-Dispositions
-Knowledge
-Meanings
person-centered therapy
-Responsibility with client;Client responsible for change.
-Dependent on inferences; No preconceptions, with as few inferences as possible
-Dependent on communication abilities of client
-Active listening - total presence
-Accurate empathy - correctly "hearing" and interpreting
-Only predetermined belief is inherent value
-Non-judgmental;Therapist provides unconditional positive regard and makes no judgments about behaviors, attitudes, or decisions
encounter groups
facilitated groups who are able to expression and perceptions;group therapy, encountering other people and their ideas; intended to improve interpersonal functioning; relatively unstructured, directed by facilitator
psychological tests
not done by Rogers, but created to be used by others
Rodger's research
-based on filmed recordings of sessions
-Q-sort
-Outcomes from unconditional or conditional regard
-Emotional Stability (higher incongruence)
Q-sort
self-reported sorting of statements about self concept; self-report assessment procedure designed to measure the discrepancy between a persons' actual and ideal selves; where you sort cards with descriptors according to how much they apply to you
For the Q-sort assessment technique, research shows that:
--Perceived self-image was closer to ideal self-image after therapy
--Good adjustment showed quicker recognition of threatening words (less defensiveness)
research shows that outcomes from conditional regard
-positive regard that is given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish leads to:
*poor coping skills
*fluctuating self-esteem
*feeling of disapproval
*resentment toward parents
*more incongruent actions taken to win parental support
research shows that outcomes from unconditional regard:
-a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude,which Carl Rogers believed to be conducive to developing self-awareness and self-acceptance; a consistent expression of love and acceptance shown regardless of changing situations or behaviors leads to:
*higher self-esteem
*greater emotional security
*greater confidence
*creativity in adolescence
what does it mean when emotional stability has a higher incongruence?
means that there is less correlation between perceived and ideal self ;experiences don't match self-concept; Provokes anxiety; Leads to distortion of reality
Research shows higher incongruence with emotional stability is correlated with:
*higher anxiety
*greater insecurity
*greater self-doubt
*higher depression
*lower self-actualization and self-esteem
Research shows that higher incongruence with emotional stability is percieved by others as:
*awkward
*confused
*unfriendly
Rodger's views on human nature
*Free will- complete choice in creating selves.
*Nature and nurture - Some nature - but mostly nurture.
*Past and present - mostly present, but some influence of past.
*Uniqueness and universality - Mostly universal because fully functioning people share similar characteristics, but also some uniqueness.
*Growth - we try to achieve self-actualization and our maximum potential
*Optimistic - innate tendency to grow.