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107 terms

The Blood

Unit:5 Ch.13
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blood
fundamental in maintaining homeostasis; brings nutrients and oxygen to the cells and carries away waste; classified as a connective tissue; blood volume accounts for approximately 8% of total body weight; divided into two main portions: the plasma and the formed elements
gases (blood transportation)
oxygen from inhaled air diffuses into the blood through thin membranes in the lungs and is carried by the circulation to all body tissues; carbon dioxide, a waste product of cell metabolism, is carried from the tissues to the lungs, where it is breathed out
nutrients (blood transportation)
the blood transports nutrients and other needed substances, such as electrolytes (salts) and vitamins, to the cells; these materials enter the blood from the digestive system or are released into the blood from body reserves
waste (blood transportation)
the blood transports the waste products from the cells to sites where they are removed; for example, the kidney removes excess water, acid, electrolytes, and urea (a nitrogen-containing waste); the liver removes blood pigments, hormones, and drugs, and lungs eliminate carbon dioxide
hormones (blood transportation)
blood carries hormones from their sites of origin to the organs they affect
pH (blood regulation)
buffers in the blood help keep the pH of body fluids steady at about 7.4 (the actual range of blood pH is 7.35 to 7.45); recall that pH is a measure of a solution's acidity or alkalinity; at an average pH of 7.4, blood is slightly alkaline (basic)
fluid balance (blood regulation)
the blood regulates the amount of fluid in the tissues by means of substances (mainly proteins) that maintain the proper osmotic pressure; recall that osmotic pressure is related to the concentration of dissolved and suspended materials in a solution; proper osmotic pressure is needed for fluid balance
heat (blood regulation)
the blood transports heat that is generated in the muscles to other parts of the body, thus aiding in the regulation of body temperature
disease (blood protection)
the blood is important in defense against disease; it carries the cells and antibodies of the immune system that protect against pathogens
blood loss (blood protection)
the blood contains factors that protect against blood loss from the site of an injury; the process of blood coagulation, is needed to prevent blood loss
plasma
the liquid portion of blood; accounts for approximately 55% of total blood volume (plasma itself is 91% water), about 8% is protein, and the remaining 1% consists of nutrients, electrolytes, and other materials that must be transported
formed elements
included the cells and cell fragments in blood; falls into three categories: erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
erythrocytes (RBCs)
from erythro, meaning "red", are the red blood cells, which transport oxygen; disc shaped bodies with a depression on both sides; differ from other cells in that the mature form found in the circulating blood lacks a nucleus (is anuclear) and also lacks most of the other organelles commonly found in cells; cannot divide
leukocytes (WBCs)
from leuko, meaning "white", are the several types of while blood cells, which protect against infection; cells are round with prominent nuclei of varying shapes and sizes; colorless; different leukocytes are identified by their size, the shape of the nuclei, and the appearance of granules (lysosomes and other secretory vesicles) in the cytoplasm when the cells are stained (Wright stain)
platelets
aka. thrombocytes; are cell fragments that participate in blood clotting
thrombocytes
aka. platelets; are cell fragments that participate in blood clotting
protein (plasma)
plasma contains approximately 8% protein; plasma proteins include the following: albumin, clotting factors, antibodies, and complement
albumin (plasma protein)
the most abundant protein in plasma, is important for maintaining the blood's osmotic pressure; this protein is manufactured in the liver
clotting factors (plasma protein)
necessary for blood coagulation, are also manufactured in the liver
antibodies (plasma protein)
combat infection; antibodies are made by certain white blood cells
complement (plasma protein)
consists of a group of enzymes that helps antibodies in their fight against pathogens
hematopoietic stem cells
the ancestors of all the blood cells; have the potential to develop into any of the blood cell types produced within the red bone marrow; located in the ends of long bones and in the inner mass of all other bones
hemoglobin
a protein found in red blood cells that contains iron; hemoglobin, combined with oxygen, gives blood its red color; has two lesser functions: carrying hydrogen ions and carrying carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs for elimination; ability to carry oxygen can be blocked by carbon monoxide; consists of four amino acid chains (globins), each with an oxygen-binding heme group
erythropoietin (EPO)
a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells, which is released form the kidney in repsonse to decreased oxygen
granulocytes
the granular leukocytes; so named because they show visible granules in the cytoplasm when stained; has a very distinctive, highly segmented nucleus; variations are: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
neutrophils
stain with either acidic or basic dyes and show lavender granules; most numerous of the white cells (60%); leukocyte; sometimes called polymorphs
eosinophils
stain with acidic dyes (eosin is one) and have beadlike, bright pink granules; leukocyte
basophils
stain with basic dyes and have large, dark blue granules that often obscure the nucleus; leukocyte
polymorphs
a term used to describe neutrophils, because their nuclei have various shapes
band cells
also called stab or staff cells; a term used to describe a neutrophil before it reaches full maturity and the nucleus looks like a thick, curved band; an increase in these cells is a sign of infection and active neutrophil production
agranulocytes
a category of white blood cells characterised by the absence of granules in their cytoplasm; two types: lymphocytes and monocytes; nuclei are round or curved and are not segmented
lymphocytes
are the second most numerous of the white cells; although they originate in the red bone marrow, they develop to maturity in lymphoid tissue and can multiply in this tissue as well; they circulate in the lymphatic system and are active in immunity; circulating lymphocytes live only 6-8 hours, but those that enter the tissues may survive for longer periods - days, months, or even years
monocytes
are the largest in size of the white cells; they average about 5% of the leukocytes
phagocytosis
the engulfing of foreign matter; whenever pathogens enter the tissues, as through a wound, phagocytes are attracted to the area (they squeeze between the cells of the capillary walls and proceed by ameboid, or amebalike, motion to the area of infection where they engulf the invaders), lysosomes in the cytoplasm then digest the foreign organisms and the cells eliminate the waste products
pus
a mixture of dead and living bacteria, together with dead and living leukocytes
abscess
a collection of pus localized in one area
macrophages
a monocyte which enters the tissues, enlarges, and matures; highly active in disposing of invaders and foreign material
plasma cells
a form of lymphocyte; active in the production of circulating antibodies needed for immunity
blood platelets
thrombocytes; smallest of all formed elements; are not cells in themselves but rather fragments constantly released from giant bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes; do not have a nuclei or DNA, but they do contain active enzymes and mitochondria; lifespan of about 10 days; essential in blood coagulation
megakaryocytes
giant bone marrow cell which releases blood platelets
coagulation
when blood comes in contact with any tissue other than the smooth lining of the blood vessels, as in the case of injury, the platelets stick together and form a plug that seals the wound; the platelets then release chemicals that participate in the formation of a clot to stop blood loss
hemostasis
is the process that prevents blood loss from the circulation when a blood vessel is ruptured by an injury; events include: contraction, platelet plug, blood clot
contraction (hemostasis)
first step of hemostasis; contraction of the smooth muscles in the blood vessel wall (this reduces blood flow and loss from the defect
platelet plug (hemostasis)
second step of hemostasis; formation of a platelet plug; activated platelets become sticky and adhere to the defect to form a temporary plug
blood clot (hemostasis)
third and final step of hemostasis; formation of a blood clot (coagulation)
procoagulants
compound which promotes clotting
anticoagulants
compound which prevents clotting
fibrinogen
plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in blood clotting; converting into fibrin by thrombin
fibrin
blood protein that forms a blood clot; insoluble fibrin, made by fibrinogen converted by thrombin
prothrombinase
a substance that triggers the final clotting mechanism in blood
thrombin
an enzyme in blood formed from prothrombin that facilitates blood clotting by reacting with fibrinogen to form fibrin; aka. Thrombase
serum
the fluid that remains after clotting has occurred; contains all the components of blood plasma except the clotting factors, as expressed in the formula: plasma = serum + clotting factors
hemorrhage
loss of blood
transfusion
introduction of blood or blood components directly into the blood stream; to administer blood from another person into the veins of the patient
hemolyzed
to undergo hemolysis; hemolysis: rupture of red blood cells (v., hemolyze)
antigen
foreign substance that produces an immune response; aka. agglutinogens; located on the surface of the red cells and cause the incompatibility reactions with blood transfusions
anti-A serum
blood serum containing antibodies that can agglutinate (destroy) and destroy red cells with A antigen
anti-B serum
blood serum containing antibodies that can agglutinate (destroy) red cells with B antigen
agglutination
clumping of cells due to an antigen-antibody reaction
Rh factor
named for Rhesus; another red cell antigen group; D antigen
Rh positive
people with the D antigen
Rh negative
people who lack the D antigen protein
hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)
condition that results from Rh incompatibility between a mother and her fetus; aka. erythroblastosis fetalis; prevented by the administration of Rh (D), trade name RhoGAM, to the mother during pregnancy and shortly after delivery
autologous
related to self, such as blood or tissue taken from one's own body; self originating
CPDA-1
citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine; added to blood to keep it from clotting; as when stored in a blood bank
centrifuge
a common method for separating the blood plasma from the formed elements; a machine that spins in a circle at high speed to separate a mixture's components according to density
hemapheresis
return of blood components to a donor following separation and removal of desired components; from the Greek work apheresis meaning "removal"
plasmapheresis
separation and removal of plasma from a blood donation and return of the formed elements to the donor
plasma
because all the red blood cells have been removed, there aren't any compatibility issues; plasma can be given to anyone
plasma expanders
cell free isotonic solutions used to maintain blood fluid volume to prevent circulatory shock
cryoprecipitate
precipitate formed when plasma is frozen and then thawed
anemia
a disorder in which there is an abnormally low level of hemoglobin or red cells in the blood and thus impaired delivery of oxygen to the tissues
leukemia
a neoplastic blood disease characterized by an increase in the number of white cells
clotting disorders
conditions characterized by an abnormal tendency to bleed because of a breakdown in the body's clotting mechanism
hemorrhagic anemia
hemorrhagic loss of red blood cells may be sudden and acute or gradual and chronic; possible causes: bleeding ulcers, excessive menstrual flow, and bleeding hemorrhoids (piles) - if it takes as long as 6 months for the affected person to recover from these blood loss afflictions, the affected person may have hemorrhagic anemia
hemolytic anemia
anemia caused by excessive red cell destruction (usually caused by the spleen, along with the liver); can also be caused by infections, such as: malarial parasite multiplying and destroying red cells, and certain bacteria, particularly streptococci, which produces a toxin that causes hemolysis
sickle cell anemia
hereditary disease in which abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to change shape (sickle) when they release oxygen
sickle cell crisis
an aspect of sickle cell anemia, in which an obstruction occurs, causing severe joint swelling and pain (especially in the fingers and toes, as well as abdominal pain)
iron-deficiency anemia
the most common nutritional anemia; iron is an essential constituent of hemoglobin, a diet deficient in proteins or vitamins can also result in anemia; red cells are small and pale
folic acid-deficiency anemia
a folic acid deficiency that occurs often in people with alcoholism, in elderly people on poor diets, and in infants or others suffering from intestinal disorders that interfere with the absorption of folic acid
pernicious anemia
characterized by a deficiency in vitamin B-12 (a substance essential for proper red cell formation; the cause is a permanent deficiency of intrinsic factor (a gastric juice secretion that is responsible for vitamin B-12 absorption from the intestine); if neglected pernicious anemia can bring about deterioration in the nervous system and permanent damage to the spinal cord
thalassemia
includes a group of hereditary blood deficiencies in which hemoglobin is normal but is not produced in adequate amounts; compounded by the fact that erythrocytes may be destroyed in the bone marrow before that mature; red cells are small and pale (as in iron-deficiency anemia but have absorbed too much iron, instead of too little); forms vary from causing chronic, life-long anemia to premature death; main types are alpha and beta depending on the part of the hemoglobin molecule affected; severe B thalassemia (beta) is also called Cooley anemia
bone marrow suppression
aka. bone marrow failure, which also leads to decreased red cell production; one type of bone marrow failure is aplastic anemia
aplastic anemia
a disorder in which the bone marrow greatly decreases or stops production of blood cells; most times the cause is unknown but some cases are brought on by certain prescribed drugs and toxic agents such as, gold compounds, arsenic, and benzene (physical agents that may injure the marrow include: x-rays, atomic radiation, radium, and radioactive phosphorus)
luekopenia
a drop in the number of white blood cells; deficiency of leukocytes in the blood; may indicate depressed bone marrow or a bone marrow neoplasm
leukemia
a neoplastic disease of blood-forming tissue; characterized by an enormous increase in the number of white cells (although the cells are high in number, they are incompetent and cannot perform their normal jobs); crowd out the other blood cells
myeloid tissue
aka. red marrow
myelogenous leukemia
leukemia characterized by proliferation of myeloid tissue in areas such as bone marrow and the spleen and by the abnormal increase of granulocytes, myelocytes, and myeloblasts in tissues and in blood (leukemia stemming from cancer of the bone marrow); may be acute or chronic; typically exhibit signs or anemia
lymphocytic leukemia
leukemia (cancer) arising from the lymphoid tissue, so that most of the abnormal cells are lymphocytes; may be acute or chronic; typically exhibit signs or anemia
hemophilia
a rare hereditary bleeding disorder, a disease that influenced history by its occurrence in some Russian and Western European royal families; characterized by a deficiency of a specific clotting factor, most commonly factor VIII; can involve: soft tissue bleeding or joints spontaneously; may be treated with the appropriate clotting factor
von Willebrand disease
a hereditary clotting disorder; involves a shortage of von Willebrand factor, a plasma component that helps platelets to adhere (stick) to damaged tissue and also carries clotting factor VIII; may be treated with the appropriate clotting factor or with a drug similar to the hormone ADH
thrombocytopenia
the most common clotting disorder , in which there is a deficit number of circulating platelets (thrombocytes); results in hemorrhage in the skin or mucous membranes; may result from decreased production or increased destruction of the platelets; causes include: diseases of the red bone marrow, liver disorders, and various drug toxicities
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
a serious clotting disorder involving excessive coagulation; occurs in cases of tissue damage caused by massive burns, trauma, certain acute infections, cancer, and some disorders of childbirth; as DIC progresses, platelets and various clotting factors are used up faster than they can be produced, and serious hemorrhage may result
complete blood count (CBC)
s series of tests of the peripheral blood, including the hematocrit, the amount of hemoglobin, and the counts of each type of formed element
hematocrit (Hct)
the volume percent of red cells in whole blood, determined by spinning a blood sample in a high speed centrifuge for 3-5 minutes to separate the cellular elements from the plasma; packed cell volume; page: 292
hemocytometer
a ruled slide used to count the cells in a given volume of blood under the microscope
polycythemia
increase in the number of red cells in the blood; people who live at high altitudes may develop this disorder
polycythemia vera
increase in the number of red cells in the bone marrow
leukocytosis
when the white cell count exceeds 10,000 cells per (mcL); this condition is characteristic of most bacterial infections; may also occur after hemorrhage, in case of gout (a type of arthritis), and in uremia, the presence of nitrogenous waste in the blood as a result of kidney disease
differential white count
an estimation of the percentage of each white cell type in the smear; because each type has a specific function, changes in their proportions can be a valuable diagnostic aid
creatinine
nitrogenous waste product eliminated in urine
creatine kinase (CK)
is an enzyme; expressed by various tissues and cell types; CK catalyses the conversion of creatine and consumes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to create phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). This CK enzyme reaction is reversible, such that also ATP can be generated from PCr and ADP
lactic dehydrogenase (LDH)
is an enzyme; present in a wide variety of organisms, including plants and animals; catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate with concomitant interconversion of NADH and NAD+; It converts pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, to lactate when oxygen is absent or in short supply, and it performs the reverse reaction during the Cori cycle in the liver
alkaline phosphatase
is a hydrolase enzyme responsible for removing phosphate groups from many types of molecules, including nucleotides, proteins, and alkaloids; could indicate liver disorder or metastatic cancer involving bone
bone marrow biopsy
refers to a procedure where a special needle is used to obtain a small sample of red marrow from the sternum, sacrum, or iliac crest
sternal puncture
a term sometimes used to describe a bone marrow biopsy when the marrow is taken from the sternum
reticulocytes
immature red blood cells, typically composing about 1% of the red cells in the human body; develop and mature in the red bone marrow and then circulate for about a day in the blood stream before developing into mature red blood cells; called reticulocytes because of a reticular (mesh-like) network of ribosomal RNA that becomes visible under a microscope with certain stains such as new methylene blue