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Microbiology Chapter 6

Bacterial Groups.
STUDY
PLAY
Traponemia padillium
causes syphillus
Gm- spirochetes
Borrelia
gram- spirochetes
causes lime disease
Leptospiria
Gram- spirochete
causes Leptospirosis in animals
liver/kidney disease in humans
Spirochetes
gram-
found in cotainated H20 soil and sewage
all are spiral
all motile via Axial Filaments
Sprillium volutan
Helical/Vibrod gm-
Harmless
Metachromatic grams
Microaerophilic found in water
Campylobacter fetus
Helical/Vibrod gm-
causes spontaneous abortion in animals
Azospirillium
Helical/Vibrod gm-
Fixes Nitrogen
Bdellovibrio
Helical/Vibrod gm-
parasitic to other bacteria
Helical/Vibrod gm- Bacteria
found in water and soil
pathogens of the GI tract and oral mucosa of humans
Helical or Curved
all have flagellas
some fix Nitrogen
Psudomonas
aerobic gm- rods with polar flagella
resistant to most antibiotics and disinfectants
opportunistic
needs few nutrients to grow
produces pigment (turns agar blue/green)
many are psychophilic
Legionella
Causes Legionairs disease
Aerobic gm- Rod/cocci
Rhizobilum
Aerobic gm- Rod/cocci
Found covering plants
Nitrogen fixing microbe
Brucella
Aerobic gm- rod/cocci
non-motile
can survive phagocytosis
Bordetella
Aerobic gm- Rod/Cocci
Has Thick capsulle
causes Whooping Cough in man
Causes Kennel Cough in dogs
Aerobic gram- Rod/Cocci
Found in soil and water
Parasitic to animals
Facultatively Anaerobic Rods Gram-
Found in soil, plants, GI tracts of man and animals
3 Families (that all end in -aceae)
Enterobacteriaceae
Vibronaceae
Pasteruellaceae
Enterobacteriaceae
Facultative Anaerobic Rob Gram-
Found in the GI tact of man and animal
Some are normal flora and some are pathogenic
Have peritichous Filagella if motile
Have many pili
Facultative anaerobes that ferment Lactose
EX. Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia
Vibrionaceae
All are aquatic
Ex. Vibroid (genus)
Pasterullaceae
Pleomorphic
Non-motile
Ex. Pasteurella, Hemophilus
Vibrio (genus)
Curved rod-Vibrionaceae
Most aren't pathogenic
Can cause Cholera and gastroenteritis
Transmitted via shellfish (mostly shimp)
Pasteurella
Pasteuruellaceae- Facilitative Anaerobic Gm- Rods
pathogen of domestic animals
Hemophilus
Pasteuruellaceae- Facilitative Anaerobic Gm- Rods
In mucus membrane
Causes meningitis, otitus media, puerperal sepsis(death after childbirth)
Anaerobic Gm-, Straight, curved, helical rods
Ex. Bacteriods, Fusobacterium
Bacteriods
Anaerobic Gm-, Straight, curved, helical rods
OBLIGATE anaerobes
make up 30% of bacteria in feces
Fusobacterium
Anaerobic Gm-, Straight, curved, helical rods
long with pointed ends
Causes dental abcesses
Dissimilatory Sulfate or Sulfur Reducing Bacteria
Found in mud sediments
Mesophilic or Thermophilic
OBLIGATE anaerobes
All are Gram-
Uses sulfur compound as final e- receptor
Ex. Desulfovibrio
Anaerobic Gram- Cocci
Round shape
Dont need oxygen
Ex Veillonella
Veillonella
Anaerobic gm- cocci
non-motile
has capsule
*part of dental plaque
Rickettsia (genus name)
OBLIGATE intracellular parasite
Cultured in yolk sacs of chicken embryos
Ex Rickettsia
Rickettsia
Obligate intracellular parasite
Gram-
Non-motile
Rocky Mountain Fever
Chlamydias
Obligate intracellular parasite
Gram-
Cocciod
Non Motile
Cultured in lab animals (via cell cultures or yolk)
Gliding
Gram-
Glide over surfaces
Leave trail of slime
Embedded in slime layer
Ex. Cytophaga
Cytophaga
Gliding Bacteria
Gram-
Breakdown plant material in soil
Gliding and Fruiting Bacteria
Gram-
form fruiting body (which germinates into new cells)
Important in nature (degrades cellulose)
Ex. Myxobacteria
Sheathed Bacteria
Gram-
Common in water rich with Nitrogen
Can become a problem for sewage treatment plants
Polar Flagella
Incased in Tube/Sheath
Ex. Spareotilus natan
Budding
Gram-
Reproduce via budding
Ex. Hypomicrobium
Appendaged
Gram-
Have prosthecae (stalks that help to anchor organism)
Ex. Caulobacter
Chemoautotrophic or Chemolithotrophic Bacteria
Gram-
Use inorganic material for energy
Ex. Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria, Nitrifiers
Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria
Chemoautotrophic or Chemolithotrophic Bacteria
Gram- Rods or spirals
Uses S compound for energy and oxygen as final e- receptor (aerobic and part of S cycle)
Nitrifiers
Chemoautotrophic or Chemolithotrophic Bacteria
Gram-
Fixes Nitrogen into a more usable form
Oxidizes inorganic N (uses ammonia or nitrates and converts them into nitates)
Important in Agriculture
Ex. Nitrobactor, Nitrosomonas
Phototrophic Anoxygenic Bacteria
Dont generate Oxygen as part of photosynthesis
Dont use water as source of e-
found where there is little light and no Oxygen
Have unique form of Chlorophyll (called bacteriochlorophyll)
Ex. Purple and Green Bacteria
Purple Sulfur Bacteria
Gram-
Found in sulfur springs
Gas Vacuoles and sulfur granulas
use various material WITH sulfur
Give off sulfur gas
EX. Chromatium, Thiospirillium, Thiodictyon
Purple Non-Sulfur Bacteria
Gram-
Found in aquatic and moist soil/bogs
Use material WITHOUT sulfur
Doesn't have gas vacuoles
Ex. Rhodobacter, Rhodopseudomonas
Green Sulfur Bacteria
Gram-
Found in sulfur springs
Gas Vacuoles and sulfur granulas
use various material WITH sulfur
Give off sulfur gas
Chlorosome as light capture pigment
NO FLAGELLA
Ex. Chlorobium, Pelodictum
Green Non-Sulfur Bacteria
Gram-
Found in aquatic and moist soil/bogs
Use material WITHOUT sulfur
Doesn't have gas vacuoles
Grow in long filaments
Ex. Chloroflexus
Staphylococci
Gram+ grape-like clusters
Facultative Survive High Osmotic Pressure
Catalase+ (enzyme that breaks down hydrogen)
Produce toxins
Ex. S. aureus, S. epidermis, S. saphrophyticus
Leukocidin
Toxin produced by Staphylococci (gm+)
Necrotizing exotoxin
Toxin produced by Staphylococci (gm+)
Found around hair folicules
Exfoliative Toxin
Toxin produced by Staphylococci (gm+)
Causes skin to peel of in sheets
Enterotoxin
Toxin produced by Staphylococci (gm+)
Causes N/V in food poisoning R/T staph infection
S. aureus
most harmful Staph infection
MERSA and Versa
S. epidermis
Staph infection on skin
S. saphrophyticus
Staph found in soil
Can cause UTI
Streptococcus
Gram+ chains of cocci
Some can cause disease
Aerotolerant
No catalase
Produce Toxins
Classified by reaction in blood agar
Erythrogenic Toxin
Toxin produced by streptococcus (gm+)
Causes redness of the skin
Streptolysin Toxin
Toxin produced by streptococcus (gm+)
kills RBC's
Strpetokinase
Toxin produced by streptococcus (gm+)
Dissolves blood clots
Alpha Hemolysis
Way to classify Streptococcus infection
Classified by reaction to Blood Agar
Red-->Green (incomplete breakdown of RBC's)
Beta Hemolysis
Way to classify Streptococcus infection
Classified by reaction to Blood Agar
Red--> Clear (complete breakdown of RBC's)
Non-Hemolytic
Way to classify Streptococcus infection
Classified by reaction to Blood Agar
No Change in agar color (grows but doesn't destroy RBC's)
Bacillus
Gm+ Endospore forming rods
Obligate or Facultative aerobes
Ex. Anthracis
Anthracis
Gm+ Endospore forming rods part of Bacillus group
Causes Anthrax
Has Capsule
Clostridium
Gm+ Endospore forming rods
"Organism of Death" Produces the smell of death
Ex. Tetani, Perfringens, Botulinum
Tetani
Gm+ Endospore forming rods part of Clostridium Group
Causes Tetanus
Perfringens
Gm+ Endospore forming rods part of Clostridium Group
Causes Gan-green
Botulinum
Gm+ Endospore forming rods part of Clostridium Group
Causes botulism
Lactobacillus
REGULAR, Non-soring Gm+ rods
Aerotolerant produces Lactic acid
Grows in acidic envrionment
Ex. L. casei and used to make pickles and yogurt
Corynebacteria
IRREGULAR, Non-sporing Gm+ rods
Club shaped
Found in throat
Most are facultative
Irregular morphology with age
Meta-chromatic granules
Causes acne and diptheria
Mycoplasm
No cell wall
Sterols in membrane
Arobic or Facultative
Must grow on media w/sterols (looks like fried eggs)
Pleomorphic
Resistant to penicillin
VERY SMALL
Causes walking pneumonia
Mycobacteria
Saprophytes
Non-motile rods
grow as filaments
Pathogenic forms cause TB and Leprosy
Nocardioforms or Nocardia
Grow as filaments BUT break off into pieces to reproduce
Found in soil
NOT TYPICALLY PATHOGENIC
Archobacteria
Halophiles- require HIGH salt concentration
They differ from Salt tolerant b/c the REQUIRE the salt not just tolerate it
Ex Sulfolobus
Sulfolobus
Archobacteria
Requires salt to survive
Found in sulfur springs
Thermophilic
Cyanobacteria
AKA Blue Green Algae
Oxygenic Phototrophs
Diverse group
Carry out photosynthesis
Found in water, soil and the surface of rocks
Move by gliding
Ex Anabeana (green pearls) Oscillatoria
Actinomycetes
Long branched filaments (called mycellia)
Reproduce via asexual spores
Ex. Streptomyces
Streptomyces
Source of antibiotics
Strict Anerobes
Produce Streptomycine