40 terms

Abraham Maslow: Needs-hierarchy theory


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Maslow's influences from childhood
Father—determined but aloof father; hitchhiked across Western Europe; was a drinker and philanderer - periodically abandoned family
Mother-- superstitious;cruel;hated- killed kittens; rejected Maslow for younger siblings
Inferiority complex- Felt inferior because of physique, nose, and differences from others
Compensation- Did not do well athletically, so turned to scholarship
Maslow's influences from later experiences
-Developed an interest in behaviorism;Worked with primates
-Interest turned to humanism
-Worked to overcome ailments
-Experiences of having a child and feeling helpless, viewing a parade, and influences of Gestalt psychologist and American anthropologist kindled interest in self-actualization
Hierarchy of needs
activate and direct human behavior
1. physiological
2. safety
3. belongingness and love
4. Esteem
5. self-actualization
The way Maslow desribed the five needs in his hiearchy; needs are innate or have a heriditory component.
However, these needs can be affected/overridden by learning, social expectations, and fear of disapproval. Although we come equipped with these needs at birth, the behaviors we use to satisfy them are learned and therefore subject to variation from one person to another;Overlain with environmental influences and learned behaviors
In Maslow's Hierarchy of needs, one need is ___________ at any time
Can the order change in the hierarchy of needs?
Four needs are ________, and four needs are __________
deficit; growth (being)
Deficiency needs
-failure to satisfy produces a deficiency in body
-basic requirements for physical and psychological well-being
-4 lower level needs that must be satisfied first
Growth (being) needs
The 4 higher needs; although growth needs are less necessary than deficit needs for survival, they involve the realization and fulfillment of human potential.
Which are more important: lower level needs or higher level needs?
lower level needs
Lower needs
higher potency/priority
Higher needs
-later in life
-gratification can be postponed and requires better circumstances/opportinities
-satisfaction leads to psychological benifits
physiological needs
*basic physical or biological needs required by every human to sustain life
*Rarely in need of satisfaction in affluent, industrialized cultures
Safety needs
*Necessary for freedom from fear
-Physical safety
-Health and well-being
-Economic safety
-Emotional safety
-Insurance against future threats
*Most prevalent in children and neurotic and insecure adults
Belongingness and love needs
*Necessary for acceptance
*Arises in adolescence
Esteem needs
*Necessary for confidence, competence, and productivity
-Esteem and respect from others
-Feeling of self-worth and esteem from selves
*Arises in adolescence
need for Self-actualization
the need to fulfill one's potention; highest need in Maslow's motivational hierarchy; Peak of potential and fullest personality development
4 necessary conditions of self-actualization
-Free of constraints imposed by society and selves
-Free of distraction by lower-order needs
-Security in self image and relationships with others
-Realistic knowledge of strengths and weaknesses
the motivation of self-actualizers, which involves maximizing personal potential rather than striving for a particular goal object
When self-actualized people use metamotivation, they are
-Seeking knowledge and understanding of environment
-Seeking personal enrichment
-State of "being" (spontaneously, naturally, and joyfully expressing full humanity)
-Evolving to meet metaneeds
*failure results in metapathology
States of growth or being toward which self-actualizers evolve; Secondary concerns, such as spirituality, creativity, curiosity, beauty, philosophy, and justice, that can be addressed only after the basic needs are met.
*the result when metaneeds are not met;
-A thwarting of self-development related to failure to satisfy the metaneeds.
-Psychological disorder that results when a being motive is not allowed proper expression.
12 characteristics of a Self-Actualized individual
-Efficient perception of reality
-Acceptance of self, others, and nature
-Spontaneity, simplicity, and naturalness
-Dedication to a cause
-sense of detachment and need for privacy
-Freshness of appreciation
-Peak experiences
-Social interest
-Deep interpersonal relationships
-Tolerance and acceptance of others
-Creativeness and originality
-Resistance to social pressures/inculturation
Efficient perception of reality
Self-actualizers perceive their world, including other people, clearly and objectively, unbiased by prejudgments or preconceptions
Acceptance of self, others, and nature
Self-actualizers accept their strengths and weaknesses. They do not try to distort or falsify their self-image and they do not feel guilty about their failings. They also accept the weaknesses of other people and of society in general.
Spontaneity, simplicity, and naturalness
The behavior of self-actualizers is open, direct, and natural. They rarely hide their feelings or emotions or play a role to satisfy society, although they may do so to avoid hurting other people; individualistic in their ideas and ideals but not necessarily unconventional in their behavior; feel secure enough to be themselves without being overly assertive.
Dedication to a cause; focus on problems outside themselves
Self-actualizers have a sense of mission, a commitment, to which they devote their energy. This dedication to a
cause or vocation is a requirement for self-actualization; find pleasure and excitement in their hard work; Through intense dedication, able to satisfy the metaneeds; do not undertake their tasks for money, fame, or power but rather to satisfy the metaneeds. Their commitment challenges and develops their abilities and helps define their sense of self.
sense of detachment and need for privacy
Self-actualizers can experience isolation without harmful effects and seem to need solitude more than persons who are not self-actualizing; depend on themselves, not on others, for their satisfactions; independence may make them seem aloof or unfriendly, but that is not their intent; more autonomous than most; and dont crave social support
freshness of appreciation
Self-actualizers have the ability to perceive and experience their environment with freshness, wonder, and awe. An experience may grow stale for someone who is not self-actualizing, but self-actualizers will enjoy each recurrence as though it was the first. Whether it is a sunset, a painting, or a symphony, a baseball game or a birthday gift—all of these experiences can be viewed with delight. Self-actualizers appreciate what they have and take little for granted.
peak experiences
Self-actualizers know moments of intense ecstasy, not unlike deep religious experiences, that can occur with virtually any activity. Maslow called these events peak experiences, during which the self is transcended and the person feels supremely powerful, confident, an decisive.
social interest
Maslow adopted Alfred Adler's concept of social interest to indicate the sympathy and empathy self-actualizing persons have for all humanity; Although often irritated by the behavior of other people, self-actualizers feel a kinship with and an understanding of others as well as a desire to help them.
Deep interpersonal relationships
Although their circle of friends is not large, self-actualizers have deep, lasting friendships; tend to select as friends those with personal qualities similar to their own, just as we all choose as friends the people we find compatible; often attract admirers or disciples; relationships are usually one-sided; the admirer asks more of the self-actualizer than the self-actualizer is able or willing to give.
Tolerance and acceptance of others; democratic character structure
Self-actualizers are tolerant and accepting of the personality and behavior of others; display no racial, religious, or social prejudice; willing to listen to and learn from anyone capable of teaching them and are rarely condescending
Creativeness and originality
Self-actualizing people are highly creative and exhibit inventiveness and originality in their work and other facets of life; flexible, spontaneous, and willing to make mistakes and learn from them; open and humble, in the way children are before society teaches them to be embarrassed or shy about possibly doing something foolish.
Resistance to social pressures/inculturation
Self-actualizers are autonomous, independent,and self-sufficient; feel free to resist social and cultural pressures to think or behave in a certain way;do not openly rebel against cultural norms or social codes, but they are governed by their own nature rather than the structures of society.
Failure to self actualize
-Hostile and rejecting parents
-Poor economic/environmental conditions
-Inadequate education
-Restriction from exploring
-Too much freedom
-Self-doubt (Jonah complex)
Jonah Complex
The fear that maximizing our potential will lead to a situation with which we will be unable to cope.
What is necessary to be able to be self-actualized?
-Sufficient childhood love
-satisfaction of physiological and safety needs in first two years of life
Cognitive needs
1. need to know-strongest and highest priority
2. need to understand-comes later
*Appear in late infancy and early childhood
*Overlap the other five needs
*Required for self-actualization
Maslow's views on human nature
Optimistic - focus on psychological health and potential
Free will- we choose how to satisfy our needs and maximize potential
Nature and nurture - needs are innate but behaviors are learned
Uniqueness and universality - needs are universal but how we respond and behave are unique
Growth - we try to achieve self-actualization and our maximum potential