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Real Estate Definitions-Section 3-2

Section 3
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Accretion
A natural and gradual addition of land through deposits left from rivers or streams. An owner that borders a body of water could be entitled to any new land that's created.
Alluvion
Extra material (sand, mud) that increases a land mass as a result of water that recedes leaving the material behind.
Appurtenant Easement
An easement that allows an adjoining neighbor to use their neighbors land. This type of easement is normally transferred automatically to any new owners. (runs with the land)
Avulsion
sudden removal or washing away of land due to mother nature's wrath. (i.e. mudslide)
Condemnation
The procedure by which a government entity takes control/ownership of a "blighted" or underutilized piece of real estate through the powers of eminent domain.
Curtesy
Upon her death, the legal right of a husband to part of his wife's estate. Some states do not recognize "curtesy" rights
Doctrine of Prior Appropriation
Current water usage from a body of water is strictly controlled (appropriated) by the state, but may be heavily weighted towards prior usage.
Dominant Tenement
In an appurtenant easement, the legal name for the parcel that "benefits" with the use of an easement. The use "dominates" the "servient tenement."
Dower
Upon his death, a legal right of a wife to part of her husbands estate. Some states do not recognize "dower" rights.
Easement
A right to use (not own) someone else's property
Easement by Necessity
Court ordered right of entry and exit because the property is currently "landlocked."
Easement by Prescription
Right to keep using someone's land by using the land without permission for a period of time prescribed by state law so that a court "prescribes" the ongoing use legal
Easement in Gross
Right of a person or entity to use another persons land when they are not the adjoining neighbor. Utility easements are common examples of "easements in gross."
Eminent Domain
The right of a governmental entity to take property from its current owner (paying just compensation) so long as the property is needed for "public use." What constitutes public use has been expanded over the past few years to include almost any use that would raise the tax base.
Encroachment
An intrusion on or over another property. An example would be a detached garage that was partially built on a neighbors property. The garage "encroaches" on the neighbor's property.
Encumbrance
Any claim, lien, liability or easement against a property that would limit a persons bundle of rights.
Erosion
Gradual loss of land due to naturally occurring events.
Escheat
Process by which the state regains title to a property is a person dies without a will and if no heirs can be located.
Fee Simple
The most secure-least limiting ownership one can have in real property.
Fee Simple Defeasible
An interest in land/estate that has limitations. Examples include: So long as it's used as a church, No alcoholic beverages can be sold on the property, etc.
Freehold
An ownership estate that's duration is currently unknown and undefined.
Homestead
In certain states, an estate/home that is protected from certain types of creditors when one co-owner dies.
Legal Life Estate
A type of life estate created by law. Examples include dower, curtesy, and homestead.
License
Temporary revocable privilege to use land for a specific purpose.
Life Estate
An interest in a property that's limited to the lifetime of someone.
Littoral
Rights governing water/beach usage of owners whose properties border (navigable) non-flowing bodies of water like lakes or oceans.
PETE
Acronym for governmental regulations on property. Police Power, Eminent Domain, Taxation, and Escheat.
Police Power
Governmental authority to regulate land uses for the public good.
Proprietary Lease
In a cooperative, the written document that gives a stockholder the right to occupy a particular apartment.
Pur Autre Vie
"For the life of another." A life estate for a life tenant based on another persons lifetime.
Reliction
Water gradually receding from a body of water with the result being an increase in the land mass.
Remainderman
Man, women, or child who's given an interest in property upon the death of the life tenant.
Riparian
Rights governing water usage of owners whose properties border flowing (non navigable) bodies of waters such as streams or small rivers.
Servient Tenement
In an appurtenant easement, the legal name for the property over which the easement runs.
Severalty
Real property ownership by only one person or by one company. While the term seems backwards, it's implying sole ownership now which may have resulted because (at some point) interests were "severed" from all other previous owners.