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72 terms

Ch 19 Reproductive System

Dr Davila Medical Careers Institute, ECPI University Human Anatomy & Physiology II BIO 104
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gonads
reproductive organs
gametes
sex cells
ovum
female gamete made by ovaries; contain 23 chromosomes; aka egg
ovaries
female gonads; produce ova and secrete the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone (also inhibin)
testes
male gonads; produce sperm and secrete male sex hormones testosterone and inhibin
spermatozoa
male gametes made by testes; contain 23 chromosomes; aka sperm
fertilization
fusion of male and female gametes; creates a diploid zygote with 46 chromosomes
zygote
fertilized egg
embryo
developing human organism from 1 week after fertilization through 2 months
pathway of sperm
testis→epididymis→ductus deferencs→ejaculatory duct→urethra
epididymis
organ in scrotum on top of testis; stores sperm, and they mature here
scrotum
external sac containing the testes
ductus deferens
muscular tube from epididymis to ejaculatory duct; conducts sperm outward
ejaculatory duct
tube through which semen enters the male urethra
urethra
carries urine from bladder out of body; in males, conducts semen out of body
male accessory organs
seminal vesicle, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands: all these glands secrete seminal fluid
semen
thick fluid containing sperm and seminal fluids from male reproductive system; aka ejaculate
penis
male organ that transfers sperm into female vagina; carries urine out of body; 3 parts are root, body (shaft), and glans
glans penis
tip, or head, of penis
prepuce
foreskin; loose skin that covers the glans penis; may be removed by circumcision
testosterone
main adrogen, or male sex hormone, secreted by the testicles; stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics (hair, voice, bones, etc)
spermatogenesis
production of sperm
mitosis
cell division; daughter cells contain same number of chromosomes as mother cell: 46
meiosis
sex-cell division; daughter cells contain half the chromosomes as mother cell: 23
sperm anatomy
head: covered by acrosome containing 23 chromosomes
middle piece: mitochondria
tail: flagellum
acrosome
anterior process of sperm; produces enzymes to penetrate the egg; aka acrosomal cap
flagellum
long, whiplike structure that propels a cell forward; in humans,only found in sperm
gonadtropin-releasing hormone
chemical signal released into the blood from hypothalamus; stimulates the release of gonadotropins FSH and LH; aka GnRH
follicle stimulating hormone
chemical signal released into the blood from anterior pituitary; stimulates development of gametes (ovum or sperm); aka FSH
luteinizing hormone
chemical signal released into the blood from anterior pituitary; stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone production in males; aka LH
female reproductive system functions
1. Produces sex hormones and gametes
2. Protects/supports embryo
3. Nourish infant
pathway of ovum
ovary→uterine tube→uterus→vagina→external genitalia
uterine tube
cilia-lined tube, which transports oocyte from ovary to uterus; where ovum is fertilized; aka oviduct or Fallopian tube
oogenesis
ovum prodcution; begins before birth, accelerates at puberty, ends at menopause
atresia
degeneration of primordial follicles, which contain primary oocytes
oocyte
immature egg cell
ovarian cycle
monthly hormone-induced changes in which ovaries prepare and release an oocyte; divided into follicular phase and luteal phase
follicular phase
phase of ovarian cycle when follicles in the ovary grow and develop oocyte; caused by FSH
luteal phase
phase of the menstrual cycle beginning with ovulation and subsequent corpus luteum formation; ends with end of menstruation; caused by LH
follicle
cluster of cells that surround, protect, and nourish a developing oocyte cell in an ovary; secrete estrogen
corpus luteum
follicle after ovulation; secretes progesterone; "empty follicle"
fetus
embryo from 9 weeks after conception/fertilization until birth
fundus
rounded superior portion of the uterus
cervix
neck-like opening inferior portion of uterus
perimetrium
thin outer tissue layer that covers the surface of the uterus
myometrium
middle, muscle tissue layer of the uterus
endometrium
inner mucous membrane layer that lines inside of uterus; zygote implants here
menses
degeneration of the functional zone (innermost lining) of the endometrium
menstruation
process of endometrial sloughing, lasting 1-7 days
menarche
first uterine cycle
menopause
termination of uterine cycles
amenorrhea
lack of menses; may be primary (never started) or transient (skipped a month of more)
vagina
muscular and vascular mucosa-lined canal extending from the uterus to exterior of body; eliminates menstrual fluids, receives sperm during intercourse, and forms inferior portion of birth canal
hymen
elastic epithelial fold that partially blocks the vagina
vulva
area containing external genitalia; aka pudendum
vestibule
central space bounded by small folds (labia minora)
clitoris
female sexual organ homologous to the penis
mons pubis
mound of fatty tissue covering the pubic area in women
labia majora
two outer folds of the vulva
lactation
secreting milk to nourish an infant
nipple
on each breast; contains ducts from mammary glands to surface
areola
reddish-brown skin around each nipple
mammary gland
modified sweat glands in female mammals, produce and secrete milk through ducts
lactiferous duct
collects milk from several mammary gland ducts and carries it to nipple
estrogen
female sex hormone; stimulates female secondary characteristics; prepares uterus for fertilization; initiates endometrium repair; maintains pregnancy and milk production
coitus
sexual intercourse or copulation; introduces semen into female reproductive tract
erection
penis stiffened when engorged with blood;
emission
subphase of male orgasm; movement of semen into the urethra ejaculation
ejaculation
rhythmic contractions that cause the expulsion of semen from the urethra
orgasm
intense pleasurable sensations accompanied by strong rhythmic contractions of pelvic floor muscles and reproductive tract organs
detumescence
when erectile tissue subsides after orgasm
impotence
male sexual dysfunction; inability to get or keep an erection