Cardiorespiratory training programs
to promote and maintain health, all healthy adults age 18 - 65 years need how much physical activity
• need moderate intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 30 min. on five days each week or
vigorous intensity aerobic activity for a minimum of 20 min. on three days a week also combination of moderate and vigorous intensity activity can be performed to meet this recommendations.
Moderate intensity aerobic activity, which is generally equivalent to a brisk walk and noticeable accelerate the heart rate can be accumulated towards the 30 min minimum from bouts lasting 10 or more minutes.
Vigorous intensity activity is exemplified by jogging, and cause rapid breathing and a substantial increase in heart rate. This recommended amount of aerobic activity is in addition to routine activities of daily living of light intensity (self-care, cooking, casual walking or shopping) or lasting less than 10 min
• in duration (walking around home or office, walking from the parking lot)
cardiorespiratory endurance or training refers to
The 3 basic components to any exercise conditioning session are
rate of progression pg 165
• the ability of a client to perform large muscle, repetitive moderate to high intensity exercise for a extended period.
The goal is to increase heart rate and respiration in order to place a appropriate physiological stress on the cardiorespiratory system. This required stress is often referred to as overload.
The term overload is most commonly used when referring to resistance or strength training (lifting a weight heavier than typical done and daily activity the stress the muscle resulting in increase in strength and potentially hypertrophy), but also applies to cardiorespiratory training.
• Overload of the cardiovascular and respiratory system is required to have beneficial adaptation in cardiorespiratory endurance. Cardiorespiratory fitness is improved by enhancing heart function and the ability of the working muscle to use the oxygen in metabolic process allow for increase energy production.
•The 3 basic components to any exercise conditioning session are warm-up, conditioning stimulus, & cool-down.
The minimal amount of overload needed to bring about the desire adaptation is referred to as
threshold. If the training level exceeds the threshold, then the physiological adaptation occurs because of the prescribe overload. A properly constructed exercise program includes frequency duration and intensity.
According to the ACSM position stand, cardiorespiratory training less than two days per week, less than 40% - 50% of oxygen uptake reserve and for less than 10 min. will not provide a sufficient overload to develop and maintain fitness in apparent healthy adults.
Although exceeding the threshold is required for a physiological adaptation to occur, excessive overload can result paradoxically, in diminished performance. When either a single bout or chronic period of excessive stresses placed on the cardiorespiratory system (resulting in a decrease in the physiological capacity)
. The term retrogression is used. The personal trainer must carefully balance the frequency, intensity and duration of the work out to ovoid over challenging the client beyond an appropriate amount of overload.
Although the desire is for all client to continue to improve appropriate levels of overload,
there are times when clients stop exercising decrease the overload below their threshold level. The result will be a loss of physiological adaptation as a person regress towards three overload status. The process of losing fitness game is referred to as regression or de-adaptation. Anticipating. Of decrease physical activity (travel, excessive work obligation) can allow for a plan reentry into the exercise program
warm-up prepares the person for the focal point of the work out (endurance phase). When a talking intensity is achieve allowance for appropriate overload. The cooldown allows a person to transit back towards resting levels following the endurance phase.
• a properly constructed exercise program will include a transition period from rest to the target exercise intensity. This transition period is called the warm-up
. During the warm-up the client should gradually increased by temperature by incorporating low-level activity similar to what will be done during the endurance phase.
Recommendations for warm-up include
• five - 10 min. low intensity large muscle activity
• intensity progression to the lower end of the target exercise range for endurance phase
the intent of a warm-up is to prepare the muscle and cardiorespiratory system for the upcoming workout. It is a time of transition and should provide gradual increase in heart rate respiration and body temperature. Taking sufficient time to prepare the body for physical activity increase the safety and enjoyment of the target exercise during the endurance phase.
The benefit of completing a warm-up includes the following
• may reduce the susceptibility of injury to muscle or joint by increasing the extensibility of connective tissue.
• Improve joint range of motion and function.
• Improve muscle performance.
• Potentially help prevent ischemic of the heart muscle, which may occur in client with sudden strenuous exertions
bend in knee for exercise bike should be
personal trainers may instruct clients to adjust seat height to maintain a 5° - 10° bend in the knee before reaching for extension. Full extension while pedaling on the stationary bike is not recommended to reduce compression on the joint structure
oxygen uptake reserve
ACSM recommend a range of between how much vo2r/ hrr
• exercise intensity can be determined from oxygen uptake reserve or heart rate reserve. ACSM recommend a range of between 40% and 50% up to 85% of oxygen uptake reserve or heart rate reserve.
The oxygen uptake reserve (commonly designed as Vo2 reserve) is the difference between maximal oxygen consumption (vo2max), and resting oxygen consumption (vo2rest)
• to use the Vo2R(reserve) method to determine intensity the following equation can be used
target vo2 (lower end of range) =[(0.40)] X (vo2 max-vo2rest)] + vo2 rest
target vo2(upper end range) =( 0.85) X (Vo2max- Vo2rest)+ vo2rest
• Vo2 max has been estimated to be 3.5 mL per kilogram per minute (also referred to as one metabolic equivalent or one met) and is used for all individuals.
• If it personal trainer has access to vo2max information, then the equation can be use.
The percentage used to determine the approximate vo2 range must be made with the client fitness level and goal in mind. Low fit client will need to start on the lower end of the range whereas more active clients will require intensity towards the upper end of the range to receive the appropriate overload.
Target heart rate
ACSM recommends intensity level for exercise between 64% and 70% to 94% of maximum heart rate.
Target heart rate equals
Target heart rate, lower end of range equal (maximum heart rate) 0.64
target heart rate(upper end of range) (maximum heart rate) x 0.94)
For example for a 20 year old with an estimate maximum heart rate of 200 the range will be 128 - 180 beats permanent. The resulting target heart rate range may be so wide that it is not helpful to guide the client exercise session. The Personal trainer must therefore consider the client health history as well as his or her to narrow the range for approximately healthy individuals. The range is often narrow to 70% - 85% of maximal heart rate. Therefore for the 20-year-old moderately active client the target heart rate range will be 140 - one 70 bpm. If a client is very decondition or unfit then a lower percentage will be used (55% - 70% %). Selection of the intensity range must be made with the client health status and fitness goal in mind
Heart rate reserve can be used. Heart rate reserve is the difference between maximal heart rate and resting heart rate. This method is often referred to as the method. The formulas use resembled those use with the vo2r method
Target heart rate(lower end of range [(.40) x(heart rate Max minus heart rate rest) + heart rate rest
Target heart rate(upper end of range) = (0.85) x (heart rate Max minus heart rate rest) plus heart rate rest
Thus When using this method for a 20-year-old client who has a resting heart rate of 75, the range will be 125 - one 85 bpm. This range is too wide to be useful and us thus reflection must be made on the client fitness. The client is moderately active use a range of 60% 80% may be more appropriate. The heart rate range program is Therefore 150 - 175 bpm and the client is decondition a range of 40% - 50% may be appropriate
RPE & TALK TEST
• the threshold level for cardiorespiratory benefit appears to be between. 12 and 16 on the originals scale and four- five on the ratio scale
• RPE is helpful for individuals having difficulty determining exercise heart rate, or who are taking medication which influence heart rate
• not a very simple way to consider intensity is the talk test. This simply means that a client exercise. They should be able to respond to someone. When comfortable speech is not a symbol, it may indicate that the intensity is above the level typically prescribed. Thus , the goal is to exercise close to the point at which speech first becomes difficult. Although very simple and said that the use of the talk test does allow for consistent training intensities
Exercise session duration
ACSM recommends how much min/ of aeroic/ cardiorespiratory acitivity
max heart rate and vo2/hrr
• ACSM recommends 20 - 60min of aerobic activity/ caridorespiratory activity . This can be in one's exercise session or can be accomplished intermittently, which is interpreted as a minimum number of minutes per session 10 if done intermittently
in some situations for decondition individual multiple short daily exercise session may be more appropriate
Frequency- 3-5 times per week
Intensity- 55%-90% of maximum heart rate, perceived exertion "somewhat hard to hard," 40%-85% of heart rate reserve or oxygen uptake reserve (VO2R
Time- 20-60 minutes of continuous or intermittent (minimum 10-minute bouts) of aerobic activity accumulated during the day.
Type- Large muscle groups, rhythmic and aerobic in nature.
Calories expended a summary of the endurance phase
American college of sports medicine recommends expanding how many calories of physical activity each day?
Expenditures of approximately how much calories per week for regular people ?
For weight loss overweight and obese adults should strive toward expending ?
• selection of mode intensity, duration, and frequency determine the calories expended during the activity. This caloric expenditure can be used to provide an overall summary of the workout.
American college of sports medicine recommends expanding 150 - 400 cal in physical activity each day. Previously sedentary individuals will begin on the lower end of the range and progress upward.
Expenditures of approximately 1000 cal per week are associated with decreases in the risk of all cause mortality.
For weight loss overweight and obese adults should strive toward expending 2000 cal per week or more.
• Some shortcomings of caloric expenditure estimates include coordination and skill influences. An experienced swimmer for example, will expend less energy to swim the same pase as someone with inefficient stroke patterns. Even though at a similar pase the calories expended by the ineperienced swimmer will be much higher than those expended by the experience athlete thus interindividual difference limits the precious of this estimation and are related to classification of exercise discussion previously in this chapter.
Realizing the limitations the personal trainer may use the following the equation to approximate the number of calories expended per minute of a given activity
MetsX3.5X BODY WEIGHT/200= calories per minute calories per minute
then to figure out how many calories the person burns for certain minute you multiply the calories by the time of session
Weekly summary for the endurance phase
• use of met level can also be used to provide a weekly summary. In the updated recommendation for adults from the American college of sports medicine and the American heart Association, a minimum goal is for 450 - 750 met per minute per week. For example, if a person walks 30 min. on five days of the week
• 3 mph(4.83kph) is equal to 3.3 Mets
• 30 min. at this intensity equals 3.3 Mets times 30 min= 99 Mets per minute
• for the week (five days of activity) = 99X5=495 per minute. For the week
for someone exercising at a high intensity 5mph is equal to 8.6 Mets X 20 = 170 to met per minute
• for the week (3 day activity)172x 3=516 met for the week
this measure is also useful when individuals combine various activities of different intensity level. The client. Enjoy walking and jogging their total could also be achieved. For example, to name per week walking 3 mph (4.83kp for 30 min. and 2 days per week jogging 5mph (805kph) would result in a total of 542 met for the week determined as follows
• 30 mets at 3mph= 3.3 Mets X 30 min.= 99 Mets per minute
• for the week(2 days of activity), 99 X 2 = 198 minutes further week
• 20 min. at 5mph (8.6 mets) = 8.6 x 20= 172 Mets per minute
• for the week (2 days of activity) = 172 X 2 = 344 min. per minute. For the week
• the cooldown is a transition from the higher intensity of the endurance phase back towards resting level. The cooldown allows heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration rate shift downward and back toward resting levels. By allowing a gradual progression towards resting rather than abruptly stopping exercise, the client will also avoid post exercise hypotension and resulting dizziness, a gradual decrease and intensity also helps dissipate body heat, promotes lactate removal and insinuate the rise in catecholamines. The cooldown. Is one of gradual recovery from endurance phase of the work out as with the warm-up approximately 10 min. of activities of diminished intensity is appropriate. For high intensity exercise a longer cooldown. Maybe warranted.
To assist in weight loss increasing activity levels to 45 - 60 min. per day may be required for overweight adults
150 minIwkj1 of moderateintensity
PA for overweight and obese adults to improve health; however,
200-300 minIwkj1 was recommended for long-term weight loss.
Evidence supports moderateintensity
PA between 150 and 250 minIwkj1 to be effective to prevent
weight gain. Moderate-intensity PA between 150 and 250 minIwkj1 will
provide only modest weight loss. Greater amounts of PA (9250 minIwkj1)
have been associated with clinically significant weight loss. Moderateintensity
PA between 150 and 250 minIwkj1 will improve weight loss in
studies that use moderate diet restriction but not severe diet restriction.
Cross-sectional and prospective studies indicate that after weight loss,
weight maintenance is improved with PA 9250 minIwkj1. However, no
evidence from well-designed randomized controlled trials exists to judge
the effectiveness of PA for prevention of weight regain after weight loss
Guidelines (101) recommend a minimum weight loss of
10%. However, there are also numerous studies that show
beneficial improvements in CVD risk factors when weight
loss is less than 10% (16,38,56,80,114,150). In fact, beneficial
improvements in chronic disease risk factors have been
reported with as little as 2-3% of weight loss (30,45,85,141).
2001 recommendation by ACSM of 200-300 minIwkj1 of
moderate-intensity PA for long-term weight loss,
PA to prevent weight gain. PA of 150 to 250 minIwkj1 with an energy equivalent of 1200 to 2000 kcalIwkj1 will prevent weight gain greater than 3% in most adults. A
PA for weight loss. PA G 150 minIwkj1 promotes minimal weight loss, PA 9 150 minIwkj1 results in modest weight loss of È2-3 kg, PA 9 225-420 minIwkj1
results in 5- to 7.5-kg weight loss, and a dose-response exists.
PA for weight maintenance after weight loss. Some studies support the value of È200- to 300-minIwkj1 PA during weight maintenance to reduce weight regain after
weight loss, and it seems that ''more is better.'' However, there are no correctly designed, adequately powered, energy balance studies to provide evidence for the
amount of PA to prevent weight regain after weight loss.
Lifestyle PA is an ambiguous term and must be carefully defined to evaluate the literature. Given this limitation, it seems lifestyle PA may be useful to counter the
small energy imbalance responsible for obesity in most adults.
PA and diet restriction. PA will increase weight loss if diet restriction is modest but not if diet restriction is severe (i,e., GkcalIwkj1 needed to meet RMR). A
Resistance training (RT) for weight loss. Research evidence does not support RT as effective for weight loss with or without diet restriction. There is limited evidence
that RT promotes gain or maintenance of lean mass and loss of body fat during energy restriction and there is some evidence RT improves chronic disease risk
factors (i.e., HDL-C, LDL-C, insulin, blood pressure).