Chapter 3

STUDY
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autonomic nervous system
the subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates body functions, such as respiration and digestion
axon
a long tubelike structure attached to a neuron that transmits impulses away from the neuron cell body
axon terminals
small fibers branching out from an axon
cell body
the part of a neuron that produces the energy needed for the activity of the cell
central nervous system
the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
dendrites
the branchlike extensions of a neuron that recieve impulses and conduct them toward the cell body
myelin
a white, fatty substance that insulates axons and enables rapid transmission of neural impulses
neuron
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
neurotransmitter
a chemical messenger that carries impluses across the synaptic gaps between neurons
peripheral nervous system
the neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body, including muscles and glands
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that connects the central nervous system with sensory receptors, muscles, and the skin
spinal cord
a column of nerves within the spinal that transmit messages to and from the brain
synapse
the junction between the axon terminals of the sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron