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18 terms

Chapter 1 The Earth as A Rotating Planet

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geographic grid
network of parallels and meridians used to fix location
parallel
east-west circle on the Earth's surface, lying in a place parallel to the equator
equator
parallel that lies midway between the two poles (latitude)
meridian
north-south line on the Earth's surface, connecting the poles (longitude)
prime meridian
reference meridian which has a longitude of 0 degrees
mercator projection
the meridians form a rectangular grid of straight vertical lines, while the parallels form straight horizontal lines
the goode projection
equal area map often used to display information such as climate or soil type (indicates the true sizes of regions on the Earth's surface)
polar projection
map projection centered on either the North or South pole
standard time
time system based on the local time of a standard meridian and applied to the belts of longitude extending roughly 7.5 on either side of that meridian
International Date Line
west side of the 180th meridian; point at which it becomes a new day
perihelion
the point in orbit in which Earth is closest to the sun (on or around January 3rd)
aphelion
Earth is farthest from the sun (around July 4th)
plane of the ecliptic
place containing the Earth's orbit around the sun
winter (december) solstice
the subsolar point is at 23.5 degrees south--Tropic of Capricorn (southern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun)
summer (june) solstice
the subsolar point is at 23.5 degrees north--Tropic of Cancer(northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun)
equinox
instant in time when the subsolar point falls on the Earth's equator and the circle of illumination passes through both poles
circle of illumination
circle that separates the day hemisphere from the night hemisphere
subsolar point
single point on Earth's surface where the sun is directly overhead at a particular moment