a quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between tow parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes.
the ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional intentions.
a set of complex hierarchical departments, agencies, commissions, and their staffs that exist to help a chief executive carry out his or her duties. Bureaucracies may be private organizations or governmental units.
major administrative unit with responsibility for a broad area of government operations. Departmental status usually indicates a permanent national interest in a particular governmental function, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture.
Civil service system
The legal system by which many federal bureaucrats are selected., the practice of hiring goverment workers on basis of open competitve examinations and merit
Division of labor
Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers
rules or regulations issued by the president that have the effect of law. All executive orders must be published in the Federal Register.
Federal Employees Political Activities Act
the 1993 liberalization of the Hatch Act. Federal employees are now allowed to run for office in nonpartisan elections and to contribute money to campaigns in partisan elections.
Business established by Congress to perform functions that can be provided by private businesses.
The 1939 act to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns. This act prohibited federal employee from making political contributions, working for a particular party, or campaigning for a particular candidate.
the process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy.
Independent executive agencies
Perform services rather than regulatory functions, Heads of agencies appointed by president, Ex. NASA, EPA
Independent regulatory commission
Created by Congress to exist outside of major departments to regulate specific economic activity or interest
working groups created to facilitate coordination of policy making and implementation across a host of governmental agencies.
the relatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees.
: the loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas.
The system by which federal civil service jobs are classified into grades or levels, and appointments are made on the basis of performance on competitive examinations.
Jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support.
Reform measure that created the Civil Service Commission to administer a partial merit system. The act classified the federal service by grades, to which appointments were made based on the results of a competitive examination. It made it illegal for federal political appointees to be required to contribute to a particular political party.
rules that govern the operation of a particular government program that have the force of law.
a quasi-legislative administrative process that has the characteristics of a legislative act.
The firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party in order to replace them with loyalists of the newly elected party.