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Development - Definition

-Sequential changes in the function of the individual
-Qualitative or quantitative; Influenced by biologic determinants & biopsychosocial environmental experiences

Fetal sensorimotor development

GESTATIONAL AGE: Age of the fetus or newborn, in weeks- from 1st day of mother's last normal menstrual period (Normal gestational period- 38-42 weeks; Gestational period divided into 3 trimesters)
CONCEPTUAL AGE: Age of a fetus or newborn in weeks since conception

Fetal sensorimotor development -
First Trimester

-Muscle spindle: 1) muscle starts to differentiate 2) tissue becomes specialized
-Touch & tactile system: 1) 1st sensory system to develop 2) response to tactile stimulus
-Vestibular: functioning at end of first trimester (not completely developed)
-Vision: 1)eyelids fused 2) optic nerve & cup being formed
-Auditory: N/A
-Olfactory: N/A
-Taste: taste buds develop
-Movement: 1) sucking, hiccuping 2) fetal breathing 3) quick generalized limb mvt 4) positional changes 5) 7.5 wks- bend neck & trunk away from perioral stroke

Fetal sensorimotor development -
Second Trimester

-Muscle spindle: 1) motor end plate forms 2) clonus response to stretch
-Touch and tactile system: receptors differentiate
-Vestibular system: N/A
-Vision: 1) startle to light 2) visual processing occurs
-Auditory: will turn to auditory sounds
-Olfactory: N/A
-Taste: N/A
-Movement: 1) quickening 2) sleep states 3) grasp reflex 4) reciprocal and symmetrical limb movements

Fetal sensorimotor development -
Third Trimester

-Muscle spindle: some muscles are mature and functional, others still maturing
-Touch & tactile system: 1) touch functional 2) actual temperature discrimination at end of third trimester 3) *most mature sensory system at birth
-Vestibular system: N/A
-Vision: 1) fixation occurs 2) able to focus (fixed focal length)
-Auditory: debris in middle ear, loss of hearing
-Olfactory: nasal plugs disappear, some olfactory perception
-Taste: can respond to different tastes (sweet, sour, bitter, salt)
-Movement: 1) 28 weeks primitive motor reflexes 2) rooting, suck, swallow 3) palmar grasp 4) plantar grasp 5) MORO 6) crossed extension

Development of Sensorimotor integration - Prenatal period

-Responds first to tactile stimuli
-Reflex development
-Innate tactile, proprioceptive, & vestibular reactions

Development of Sensorimotor integration - Neonatal period

-Tactile, proprioceptive & vestibular inputs are critical from birth on for eventual develop. of body scheme
-Vestibular system- fully developed at birth & cont to be refined & impacts infant's arousal level
-Visual system- develops as infant responds to human faces & items of high contrast placed ~10 inches from face
-Auditory system- immature at birth & develops as the infant orients to voices and other sounds

Development of Sensorimotor integration - First six months

-Vestibular, proprioceptive,& visual systems become more integrated; lay foundation for postural control- facilitates a steady visual field
-Tactile & proprioceptive systems- cont to be refined, laying foundation for develop of somatosensory skills
-Visual & tactile systems become more integrated as the child reaches out & grasps objects, laying the foundation for eye-hand coordination
-Infant movement patterns progress from reflexive to voluntary & goal-directed

Development of Sensorimotor integration - Six to twelve months

-Vestibular, visual, & somatosensory responses increase in quantity & quality as infant becomes more mobile
-Tactile& proprioceptive perception- become more refined, allowing for development of fine motor & motor planning skills
-Tactile & proprioceptive response lead to midline skills & eventual crossing of midline
-Auditory, tactile, & proprioceptive perceptions are heightened allowing for development of sounds for the purpose of communication
-*Tactile, proprioceptive, gustatory, & olfactory perceptions are integrated- allowing for primitive self-feeding

Development of Sensorimotor integration - Thirteen to twenty-four months

-Tactile perception more precise allowing for discrimination & localization= refinement of FM skills
-Further integration of all systems promotes complexity of motor planning as child expands his/her repertoire of movement patterns
-Symbolic gesturing & vocalization promotes ideation, indicating the ability to conceptualize
-Motor planning abilities contribute to self concept as the child begins to master the environment

Development of Sensorimotor integration - Two to three years

-**This is a period of refinement as vestibular, proprioceptive, & visual systems further develop, leading to improved balance & postural control
-Further development of tactile discrimination & localization lead to improved fine motor skills
-Motor planning & praxis ideation also progress

Development of Sensorimotor integration - Three to seven years

-Child is driven to challenge sensorimotor competencies thru roughhouse play, playground activties, games, sports, music, dancing, arts & crafts, household chores, & school tasks (opportunities to promote social development & self-esteem)

General principles of motor development

-Occurs in a cephalocaudal/proximal to distal direction
-Progresses from gross to fine movement
-Progresses from stability to controlled mobility
-Occurs in a spiraling manner, with periods of equilibrium and disequilibrium
-Sensitive periods occur when the infant/child is affected by environmental input

GM Prone Position- 0-2 mo

-Turn head from side to side
-Lift head momentarily
-Weight bear on forearms
-attempts to shift weight on forearms resulting in shoulder collapse

GM Prone Position- 5-6 mo

-Shifts weight on forearms and reaches forward
-Bears weight and shifts weight on extended arms
-Equilibrium reactions are present

GM Prone Position- 5-8 mo

-Airplane posturing in prone position; chest and thighs lift off surface

GM Prone Position- 7-8 mo

-Pivots in prone position
-Moves to prone position to sit

GM Prone Position- 9 mo

-Begins to dislike prone position

GM Supine Position- 0-3 mo

-Head held to one side
-Able to turn head side to side

GM Supine Position- 3-4 mo

-Holds head in midline
-Legs come together

GM Supine Position- 4-5 mo

-Head lag is gone when pulled to a sitting position
-Hands are together in space

GM Supine Position- 5-6 mo

-Lifts head independently
-Brings feet to mouth (with hands)
-Able to reach for toy with one or both hands
- Hands are predominately open

GM Supine Position- 7-8 mo

-Equilibrium reactions are present

GM Rolling- 3-4 mo

-Rolls from prone to side accidentally b/c of poor control of weight shift
- Rolls from supine position to side

GM Rolling- 5-6 mo

-Rolls from prone to supine
-Rolls from supine to side
-Rolls from supine to prone

GM Rolling- 6-14 mo

-Rolls segmentally with roll initiated by the head, shoulder, or hips

GM Creeping Development
(crawl-belly on surface & creep- what we typically think of when child is "crawling")

7 mo- Crawls forward on belly
7-10 mo- Reciprocal creep
10-11 mo- Creeps on hands and feet
11-12 mo- Creeps well

Sitting 0-3 mo

(held in sitting)
-Head bobs in sitting
-Back is rounded
-Sits with less support
-Hips are bent and shoulders are in front of hips

Sitting 5-6 mo

(supports self in sitting)
-Sits alone momentarily
-Increased extension in back
-Sits propped forward on arms
-Wide base, legs are bent
- Periodic use of "high guard" position
-Protective responses present when falling to the front

Sitting 5-10 mo

-Sits alone steadily, initially w/ wide base of support
-Able to play with toys in sitting position

Sitting 6-11 mo

-Gets to sitting position from prone

Sitting 7-8 mo

-Equilibrium reactions are present
-Can rotate upper body while sitting w/ lower body remaining stationary
-Protective response present when falling to the side

Sitting 8-10 mo

-Sits well without support
-Increased variety of sitting positions
- Difficult FM tasks may cause return of the wide base of support

Sitting 9-18 mo

-Rises from supine by first rolling over to stomach then pushing up into 4-point position

Sitting 10-12 mo

-Protective extension backwards present
- Able to move in & out of sitting into other positions

Sitting 11-12 mo

-Trunk control and equilibrium responses are fully developed in sitting
- Further increase in variety of positions possible

Sitting 11-24 mo +

-Rises from supine by first rolling to side then pushing up into sitting position

Standing 0-3 mo

-When held in standing position, takes some weight on legs

Standing 2-3 mo

-When held in standing position, legs may give way

Standing 3-4 mo

-Bears some weight on legs, but must be held proximally
- Head is up in midline, no chin tuck
- Pelvis & hips are behind shoulders
-Legs are apart and turned outward

Standing 5-6 mo

-Increased ability to bear weight; decreased support needed; may be held by arms or hands
- Legs are still speed apart & turned outward
-Bounces in standing position

Standing: 5-10 mo

Stands while holding onto furniture

Standing 6-12 mo

-Pulls to standing position at furniture

Standing 8-9 mo

-Rotates trunk over the lower extremities (L.E.)
-L.E. are more active in pulling to a standing position
-Pulls to a standing position by kneeling, then half kneeling

Standing 9-13 mo

-Pulls to standing w/ legs only, no longer needs arms
-Stands alone momentarily

Standing 12 mo

-Equilibrium reactions are present in standing

Walking 8 mo

-Cruises sideways

Walking 8-18 mo

-Walks with two hands held

Walking 9-10 mo

-Cruises around furniture, turning slightly in intended direction

Walking 9-17 mo

-Takes independent steps, falls easily

Walking 10-14 mo

-Stoops while walking and recovers in play

Walking 11 mo

-Walks with one hand held
- Reaches for furniture out of reach when cruising
-Cruises in either direction, no hesitation

Walking 15 mo

-Able to start and stop in walking

Walking 18 mo

-Seldom falls
-Runs stiffly with eyes on the ground

Release 0-1 mo

-No release, grasp reflex too strong

Release 1-4 mo

-Involuntary release

Release 4 mo

-Mutual fingering in midline

Release 4-8 mo

-Transfers object from hand to hand
*5-6 mo: 2-Stage transfer- taking hand grasps before releasing hand lets go
*6-7 mo: 1-Stage transfer- where the taking hand 7 releasing hand perform actions simultaneously

Release 7-9 mo

-Volitional release

Release 7-10 mo

-Presses down on surface to release
-*8mo: releases above a surface with wrist flexion
-*9-10mo: Releases into a container w/ wrist straight

Release 10-14 mo

-Clumsy release into small container; hand rests on edge of container

Release 12-15 mo

-Precise, controlled release into small container with wrist extended

Stairs 15 mo

-Creeps up stairs

Stairs 18-24 mo

-Walks up/down stairs while holding on
-Creeps backwards down stairs

Stairs 2-2.5 years +

-Walks up/down stairs without support, marking time

Stairs 2-3 years

-Walks up stairs, alternating feet

Stairs 3-3.5 years

-Walks down stairs, alternating feet

Jumping/Hopping 2 years

-Jumps down from step

Jumping/Hopping 2.5 years

-Hops on one foot, few steps

Jumping/Hopping 3 years

-Jumps off floor with both feet

Jumping/Hopping 3-5 years

-Jumps over objects
-Hops on one foot
-Gallops, leading with one foot & transferring weight smoothly & evenly

Jumping/Hopping 5 years

-Hops in straight line

Jumping/Hopping 5-6 years

-Skips on alternating feet, maintaining balance

Reflex development and integration

-Predictable motor response elicited by tactile, proprioceptive, or vestibular stimulation
-Primitive reflexes are present at or just after birth & typically integrate throughout the first year
-Persistence/ re-emergence of primitive reflexes are indicative of CNS dysfunction- may interfere w/ motor milestone attainment, patterns of mvmt, musculoskeletal align, & fx

Reflex: Rooting

-Onset: 28 wks gestation
-Integration: 3 mo
- Stimulus: stroke corner of mouth, upper & lower lip
-Response: Movement of tongue, mouth,&/or head toward the stimulus
- Relevance: Allows searching for & locating feeding source

Reflex: Suck-Swallow

-Onset: 28 wks gestation
-Integration: 2-5 mo
-Stimulus: Place finger in mouth w/ head in midline
-Response: Strong, rhythmical sucking
- Relevance Allows ingestion of nourishment

Reflex: Traction

-Onset: 28 wks gestation
-Integration: 2-5 mo
-Stimulus: grasp forearms & pull-to-sit
-Response: Complete flexion of UE
- Relevance: Enhances momentary reflexive grasp

Reflex: Moro

-Onset: 28 wks gestation
-Integration: 4-6 mo
- Stimulus: Rapidly drop infant's head backwards
-Response: 1st phase- arm extension/aBduction, hand opening. 2nd phase- arm flexion & aDduction
- Relevance: Facilitates ability to depart from dominant flexor posture: protective response

Reflex: Plantar Grasp

-Onset: 28 wks gestation
-Integration: 9 mo
- Stimuli: apply pressure w/ thumb to ball of the foot
-Response: Toe flexion
- Relevance: increases tactile input to sole of foot

Reflex: Galant

-Onset: 32 wks gestation
-Integration: 2 mo
-Stimuli: Hold in prone suspension, gently scratch/tap along side spine w/ finger, from shoulders to buttocks
-Response: Lateral trunk flexion & wrinkling of the skin on the stimulated side
- Relevance: facilitates lateral trunk movements necessary for trunk stabilization

Reflex: Asymmetric tonic neck reflex (ATNR)

-Onset: 37 wks gestation
-Integration: 4-6 mo
- Stimuli: Fully rotate infants head & hold for 5 secs
-Response: Extension of extremities on the face side, flexion of extremities on the skull side
- Relevance: promotes visual hand regard

Reflex: Palmar Grasp

-Onset: 37 wks gestation
-Integration: 4-6 mo
-Stimuli: Place examiner's finger in infants palm
-Response: finger flexion, reflexive grasp
-Relevance: Increases tactile input on palm of hand

Reflex:Tonic Labyrinthine- Supine

-Onset: > 37 wks gestation
-Integration: 6 mo
-Stimuli: Place infant in supine
-Response: Increased extensor tone
- Relevance: facilitates total-body extensor tone

Reflex:Tonic Labyrinthine-Prone

-Onset: > 37 wks gestation
-Integration: 6 mo
-Stimuli: Place infant in prone
-Response: Increased flexor tone
-Relevance: facilitates total-body flexor tone

Reflex: Labyrinthine/ Optical (head) righting

-Onset: birth-2 mo
-Integration: PERSISTS
-Stimuli:Hold infant suspended vertically & tilt slowly (~45 degrees) to the side, forward, or backward
-Response: Upright positioning of the head
-Relevance:Orients head in space&maintains it vertical

Reflex: Landau

-Onset: 3-4 mo
-Integration: 1-2 years (12-24 mo)
-Stimuli:Hold infant in horizontal prone suspension
-Response:Complete extension of head, trunk, & extremities
-Relevance:Breaks up flexor dominance; facilitates prone extension

Reflex: Symmetric tonic neck reflex (STNR)

-Onset: 4-6 mo
-Integration: 8-12 mo
-Stimuli:Place infant in crawling position&extend head
-Response: Flexion of hips & knees
-Relevance:breaks up total extensor posture; facilitates static quadruped position

Reflex: Neck righting

(Neck on body- NOB)
-Onset: 4-6 mo
-Integration: 5 years
-Stimuli:place in supine & fully turn head to one side
-Response: Log rolling of the entire body to maintain alignment with the head
-Relevance: maintains head/body alignment; helps initiate rolling (1st ambulation effort)*

Reflex: Body righting

(Body on body- BOB)
-Onset: 4-6 mo
-Integration: 5 years
-Stimuli:place infant in supine, flex 1 hip & knee toward chest & hold briefly
-Response: Segmental rolling of the upper trunk to maintain alignment
-Relevance: facilitates trunk/ spinal rotation

Reflex: Protective extension downward
(downward parachute)

-Onset: 4 mo
-Integration: PERSISTS
-Stimuli:Rapidly lower infant toward supporting surface while suspended vertically
-Response: Extension of lower extremities
-Relevance:allows accurate placement of L.E. in anticipation of a surface

Reflex: Protective extension forward
(forward parachute)

-Onset: 6-9 mo
-Integration: PERSISTS
-Stimuli: suddenly tip infant forward toward supporting surface while vertically suspended
-Response:Sudden extension of U.E., hand opening, & neck extension
-Relevance:allows accuracy placement of U.E. in anticipation of supporting surface to prevent a fall

Reflex: Protective extension sideward
(sideward parachute)

-Onset: 7 mo
-Integration: PERSISTS
-Stimuli: Quickly but firmly tip infant off balance to the side while in the sitting position
-Response: Arm extension and aBduction to the side
-Relevance:protects body to prevent a fall; supports body for unilateral use of opposite arm

Reflex: Protective extension backward
(backward parachute)

-Onset: 9-10 mo
-Integration: PERSISTS
-Stimuli:quickly but firmly tip off-balance backward
-Response: Backward arm extension or arm extension to one side
-Relevance:protects body to prevent a fall; unilaterally facilitates spinal rotation

Reflex: Prone tilting

-Onset: 5 mo
-Integration: PERSISTS
-Stimuli: after positioning infant in prone, slowly raise one side of the supporting surface
-Response:Curving of spine toward raised side (opposite pull of gravity); ABduction/ext arms & legs
-Relevance:maintain equilibrium without arm support; facilitate postural adjustments in all positions

Reflex: Supine tilting and sitting tilting

-Onset: 7-8 mo
-Integration: PERSISTS
-Stimuli:after positioning in supine/sitting, slowly raising one side of the supporting surface
-Response:Curving of spine toward raised side (opposite pull of gravity); ABduction/ext of arms& legs
-Relevance:maintain equilibrium without arm support; facilitate postural adjustments in all positions

Reflex: Quadruped tilting

-Onset: 9-12 mo
-Integration: PERSISTS
-Stimuli:after positioning infant on all fours slowly raising one side of the supporting surface
-Response: Curving of spine toward raised side (opposite pull of gravity); ABduction/ext of arms &legs
-Relevance: maintain equilibrium without arm support; facilitate postural adjustments in all positions

Reflex: Standing tilting

-Onset: 12-21 mo
-Integration: persists
-Stimuli:after positioning infant in standing slowly raise one side of the supporting surface
-Response: Curving of spine toward raised side (opposite pull of gravity); ABduction/ext of arms &legs
-Relevance: maintain equilibrium without arm support; facilitate postural adjustments in all positions

Reaching 4 mo

-Hands come together at midline for bilateral reaching with shoulders aBducted with partial internal rotation, forearm pronation, and full finger extension

Reaching 6 mo

-Increased dissociation of body sides, allows for unilateral reaching with less aBduction & internal rotation of the shoulder, & the hand is more open

Reaching 9 mo

-As trunk stability improvs (than at 6 mo), shoulder flex w/ slight external rotation, elbow extens, forearm supination,& slight wrist extens begin to emerge

Grasping skills according to Erhardt Prehension Developmental Levels:
Grasping of Pellet (Prone or sitting)- 3 mo

-No attempt to grasp but VISUALLY attends to object

Grasping skills according to Erhardt Prehension Developmental Levels:
Grasping of Pellet (Prone or sitting)- 6 mo

-Raking grasp and contacting the object

Grasping skills according to Erhardt Prehension Developmental Levels:
Grasping of Pellet (Prone or sitting)- 7 mo

- INFERIOR-SCISSORS grasp: raking object into palm with aDducted totally flexed thumb&all flexed fingers, or 2 partially extended fingers

Grasping skills according to Erhardt Prehension Developmental Levels:
Grasping of Pellet (Prone or sitting)- 8 mo

-SCISSORS grasp- between thumb & side of curled index finger, distal thumb joint slightly flexed, proximal thumb joint extended

Grasping skills according to Erhardt Prehension Developmental Levels:
Grasping of Pellet (Prone or sitting)- 9 mo

-INFERIOR PINCER grasp- between ventral surfaces of thumb & index finger, distal thumb joint extended, beginning of thumb opposition

Grasping skills according to Erhardt Prehension Developmental Levels:
Grasping of Pellet (Prone or sitting)- 10 mo

-PINCER grasp-btwn distal pads of thumb&index finger,distal thumb joint slightly flexed, thumb opposed

Grasping skills according to Erhardt Prehension Developmental Levels:
Grasping of Pellet (Prone or sitting)- 12 mo

-FINE PINCER grasp- between fingertips or fingernails, distal thumb joint flexed

Grasping skills according to Erhardt Prehension Developmental Levels:
Grasping of Cube- Neonate

- Visually attends to object, grasp is reflexive

Grasping skills according to Erhardt Prehension Developmental Levels:
Grasping of Cube- 3 mo

- visually attends to object & may swipe (sustained voluntary grasp possible only upon contact, ulnar side used, no thumb involvement, wrist flexed)

Grasping skills according to Erhardt Prehension Developmental Levels:
Grasping of Cube- 4 mo

-PRIMITIVE SQUEEZE grasp- visually attends to object, approaches if within 1 inch, contact results in hand pulling the object back to squeeze precariously against the other hand or body, no thumb involvement

Grasping skills according to Erhardt Prehension Developmental Levels:
Grasping of Cube- 5 mo

-PALMAR grasp- fingers on top surface of object press it into center of palm with thumb aDducted

Grasping skills according to Erhardt Prehension Developmental Levels:
Grasping of Cube- 6 mo- 7mo

-RADIAL-PALMAR grasp- fingers on far side of the object press it against the opposed thumb &radial side of palm (at 7 mo the wrist is straight)

Grasping skills according to Erhardt Prehension Developmental Levels:
Grasping of Cube- 8 mo- 9mo

-RADIAL-DIGITAL grasp- object held with the opposed thumb & fingertips, space visible between (at 9 mo with wrist extended)

Releasing skills

-Development progresses from: no release (0-1mo) to involuntary release (1-4mo) to two-stage transfer (5-6mo) to one-stage transfer (6-7 mo) to voluntary release (7-9mo)
-by 9 mo, release by full arm extension
-refinement continues up to age 4= graded release

Carrying skills

Involves a combo of movements of the shoulder, body & distal joints of the wrist & hand to hold the item, making appropriate adjustments as necessary to maintain this hold

Bilateral hand use birth-3 mo

-Asymmetric movements until 3 mo

Bilateral hand use 3-10 mo

-Symmetric movements emerge until 10 mo

Bilateral hand use 12-18 mo

-Uses both hands for different functions

Bilateral hand use 18 mo - 2 years

-Manipulation skills emerge

Bilateral hand use 2.5 years

-Able to use 2 hands for very different functions emerge

Manipulating skills according to Exner's Classification System:
Finger to Palm Translation

-12-15 mo
-a linear mvt of an obj from fingers to palm of hand
-picking up coins

Manipulating skills according to Exner's Classification System:
Palm to Finger Translation

-2-2.5 years
-w/ stabilization, a linear mvt of an obj from palm of hand to fingers
-placing coins in a slot

Manipulating skills according to Exner's Classification System:
Simple Rotation

-2-2.5 years
-turning or rolling of an obj held at the finger pads ~90 degrees or less
- unscrewing small bottle cap

Manipulating skills according to Exner's Classification System:

-3 years
-a linear mvt of an obj on the finger surfaces to allow for repositioning of the obj relative to the finger pads
- separating two pieces of paper

Manipulating skills according to Exner's Classification System:
Complex Rotation

-6-7 years
-rotation of an obj 360 degrees
-turning a pencil over to erase

Manipulating skills according to Exner's Classification System:
In-hand Manipulation with Stabilization

-6-7 years
-several obis are held in hand & manipulation of one obj occurs, while simultaneously stabilizing the others
-picking up pennies & storing in ulnar side of hand

Pre-writing skills 1-1.5 years

-Palmar supinate grasp:
held w/ fisted hand, wrist slightly flexed & slightly supinated away from mid-position; arm moves as a unit

Pre-writing skills 2-3 years

-Digital-pronate grasp:
held w/ fingers, wrist neutral w/ slight ulnar deviation, & forearm pronated; arm moves as a unit

Pre-writing skills 3.5-4 years

-Static tripod posture/ grasp
held w/ crude approximation of thumb, index& middle fingers, ring& little fingers only slightly flexed, grasped proximally with continual adjustments made by other hand, no fine localized movements of digit components; hand moves as a unit

Pre-writing skills 4.5-6 years

-Dynamic tripod posture/ grasp
held w precise opposition of distal phalanges of thumb, index& middle fingers, ring & little fingers flexed to form a stable arch, wrist slightly extended, grasped distally, MCP joints stabilized during fine, localized movements of PIP joints

Scissor skills 2-3 years

-Shows an interest in scissors
-Holds & Snips with scissors
-Opens & closes scissors in a controlled fashion

Scissor skills 3-4 years

-Manipulates scissors in a forward motion
-Coordinates the lateral direction of the scissors
-cuts a straight forward line
-Cuts simple geometric shapes
-(3.4-4.5)- cuts circles

Scissor skills 4-6 years

-Cuts simple figure shapes

Scissor skills 6-7 years

-Cuts complex figure shapes

Psychosocial development and major theorists - Lawrence Kohlberg: Stages of moral development

-Level 1, preconventional morality: occurs up until the age of 8: 1) stage 1, punishment and obedience - the child is obedient in order to avoid punishment 2) stage 2, instrumental relativism - the child makes moral choices based on the benefit to self and sometimes to others
-Level 2, conventional morality: occurs at about 9 or 10 years of age: 1) stage 1, social conformity - the child desires to gain the approval of others 2) stage 2, law and order - rules and social norms are internalized
-Level 3, postconventional morality: age range can vary, and not all will achieve this level (social contracts - the young adult has social awareness and an awareness of the legal implications of decisions/actions)

Psychosocial development and major theorists - Abraham Maslow

-Maslow developed a hierarchy of basic human needs, proposing that if the lower-level needs are not met, the individual is unable to work on higher-level pursuits
-Philosophic: basic survival needs (ie. good, water, rest warmth)
-Safety: the need for physical and physiologic security
-Love and belonging: the need for affection, emotional support and group affiliation
-Self-esteem: the need to believe in one's self as a competent and valuable member of society
-Self-actualization: the need to achieve one's personal goals,after attaining all of the psychosocial developmental milestones

Erik Erikson

- Ego adaptation is the adaptive response of the ego in the development of the personality
- Eight stages of man are identified & include a critical personal-social crisis that when resolved by individual gives one a sense of mastery & results in acquisition of a personality quality

Erikson's 8 Stages:
1) Basic trust vs. mistrust

(birth to 18 months)
-Realizes that survival & comfort needs will be met
-HOPE is integrated into the personality

Erikson's 8 Stages:
2) Autonomy vs. doubt & shame

(2 to 4 years)
-Realizes that he/she can control bodily functions;
- SELF-CONTROLLED WILL integrated into personality

Erikson's 8 Stages:
3)Initiative vs. guilt

(preschool age)
-gains social skills & a gender role identity;
- a SENSE OF PURPOSE is integrated into personality

Erikson's 8 Stages:
4) Industry vs. inferiority

(elementary school age)
-child gains a sense of security through peers & gains mastery over activity of his/her age group;
-FEELING OF COMPETENCY integrated into personality

Cognitive Development - Jean Piaget

-Described the process of cognitive development from birth to adolescence
-Major constructs: 1) adaptation - responding to environmental challenges as they occur 2) mental schemes - organizing experiences into concepts 3) operations - the cognitive methods used by the child to organize schemes and experiences to direct subsequent actions 4) adapted intelligence or cognitive competence 5) equilibrium - the balance between what the child knows and can act on and what the environment provides 6) assimilation - the ability to take a new situation and change it to match an existing scheme or generalization 7) accommodation - the development of a new scheme in response to the reality of a situation, or discrimination

Erikson's 8 Stages:
5) Self-identity vs. role diffusion

(teenage years)
-begins to make choices about adult roles, & w/ the resolution of identity crisis a sense of FIDELITY OR MEMBERSHIP W/ SOCIETY integrated into personality

Erikson's 8 Stages:
6) Intimacy and solidarity vs. isolation

(young adulthood)
-Establishes an intimate relationship w/ a partner & family
-the CAPACITY TO LOVE is achieved

Erikson's 8 Stages:
7) Generativity vs. self-absorption

(middle adulthood)
-Finds security in the contribution of his/her chosen personal/professional roles;
-the CAPACITY TO CARE is achieved

Erikson's 8 Stages:
8) Integrity vs. despair

-Reflects on his/her own value, & shares w/ the younger generation the knowledge gained;
-WISDOM is acquired

Piaget's Hierarchical development of cognition:
Sensorimotor Period

-Birth to 2 years
-Reflexive stage-schemes begin in response to reflexes (1mo)
-Learns cause & effect thru reflexive sensorimotor patterns (2-4mo)
-Emerging voluntary mvt due to coord of vision& hand& early awareness of cause& effect(5-8mo)
-Object permanence-& early development of decentered thought (9-12mo)
-Tool use begins 12-18 mo
-child demos insight& purposeful tool use, & explores problem solving options; ability to represent concepts without direct manipulation emerges (18mo-2yrs)
-PROCESS of sensorimotor: Progresses from reflexive activity--> mental representation-->cognitive functions of combining-->manipulating objs in play

Piaget's Hierarchical development of cognition:
Preoperational Period

-2-7 years
-Classification: Categorizes items through relationships, similarities, differences
-Seriation: relationship of one obj or classification of obis to another
-Conservation: end product of pre operational period- able to recognize continuities of an obj or class of objs in spite of apparent changes
2 Phases of Preoperational Period: 1) Pre conceptual (2-4yrs) Expands vocab & symbolic representations 2) Intuitive Thought Phase: child imitates, copies or repeats what is seen or heard & bases conclusions based on what they believe to be true rather than logic (inductive reasoning denotes transition to next stage)
-PROCESS of Pre operational: Progress from dependence on perception as opposed to logic & egocentric orientation--> logical thought for solving problems. Child enjoys symbolic & verbal play

Piaget's Hierarchical development of cognition:
Concrete Operations

-7 to 11 years
-Reversibility: an expansion of conservation-leads to increased spatial awareness
-Rules: as rules are better understood= better applied
-Empirico-inductive thinking: child solves problems with the information that is obvious & present
-Uses logical thinking on observed or mentally represented objects, inductive thinking, enjoys games with rules which helps them adjust to social demands

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