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38 terms

Biology Chapters 8 & 9

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Dr. Smith's parents have normal hearing. However, Dr. Smith has an inherited form of deafness. Deafness is a recessive trait that is associated with the abnormal allele d. The normal allele at this locus, associated with normal hearing, is D. Dr. Smith's parents could have which of the following genotypes?
Dd and Dd
Which one of the following does not occur during mitotic anaphase?
The chromatid DNA replicates
If the S phase was eliminated from the cell cycle, the daughter cells would
have half the genetic material found in the parental cell.
The creation of offspring carrying genetic information from just a single parent is called
asexual reproduction
Which of the following does not enhance genetic diversity?
mitosis of somatic cells
The genetic material is duplicated during
the S phase.
With the exception of identical twins, siblings who have the same two biological parents are likely to look similar, but not identical, to each other because they have
a similar but not identical combination of genes.
Two chromosomes in a nucleus that carry loci for the same traits in the same positions on the chromosome but specify different versions of some traits constitute a pair of
homologous chromosomes
The phenotypic ratio resulting from a AaBb x AaBb where (A and B are the dominant alleles for each gene pair)is expected to be which one of the following assuming independent assortment?
9:3:3:1
Many genetic disorders of humans are caused by
recessive alleles
Which one of the following statements is false?
Gametes are made by mitosis
Compared to prokaryotic chromosomes, eukaryotic chromosomes
are housed in a membrane-enclosed nucleus
Both mitosis and meiosis are preceded by
interphase
Karyotyping
can reveal alterations in chromosome number
A benign tumor differs from a malignant tumor in that a benign tumor
does not metastasize
Which of the following is a difference between mitosis and meiosis?
All of the choices are correct
A carrier of a genetic disorder who does not show symptoms is most likely to be __________ to transmit it to offspring.
heterozygous for the trait and able
Which of these is not a component of meiosis?
random fertilization
Strictly speaking, the phrase "like begets like" refers to
asexual reproduction only
Nondisjunction occurs when
members of a chromosome pair fail to separate.
During which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up on a plane located equidistant from the two spindle poles?
metaphase
In Mr Potato Head for mouth type MM and Mm smile, mm stick their tongue out. EE and Ee Potato Heads have Ears, ee Potato Heads do not. AA and Aa Potato Heads have arms and aa Potato Heads do not. For the cross AaEeMm X AaEeMm what fraction of offspring will be: arms, no ears, smiles
9/64 (9 out of 64)
Which one of the following is a difference between sexual and asexual reproduction?
Sexual reproduction is more likely to increase genetic variation than is asexual reproduction.
Assuming that the probability of having a female child is 50% and the probability of having a male child is also 50%, what is the probability that a couple's first-born child is female and second-born child is male?
25%
Independent orientation of chromosomes at metaphase I results in an increase in the number of
possible combinations of characteristics.
The process by which the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell divides to produce two cells is called
cytokinesis
Prior to mitosis, each chromosome of a eukaryotic cell consists of a pair of identical structures called
sister chromatids
During which phase of mitosis does the nuclear envelope re-form and the nucleoli reappear?
telophase
A cell with 8 chromosomes is in the G2 phase of mitosis. How many DNA molecules does the cell's nucleus have?
16
Mendel's law of independent assortment states that
each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during gamete formation.
The expression of both alleles for a trait in a heterozygous individual illustrates
codominance
The diploid cell resulting when two gametes form is called a(an):
zygote
Which one of the following is an example of incomplete dominance in humans?
hypercholesterolemia
A cell with 8 chromosomes in metaphase has how many chromosomes during anaphase?
16
Which of the following occurs during interphase?
cell growth and duplication of the chromosomes
Eukaryotic cells spend most of their cell cycle in which phase?
interphase
Imagine that we mate two black Labrador dogs with normal vision and find that 3 of the puppies are like the parents, but one puppy is chocolate with normal vision, and another is black with PRA (progressive retinal atrophy, a serious disease of vision.. We can conclude that
the alleles for color and vision segregate independently during gamete formation.
If a chromosome fragment breaks off and then reattaches to the original chromosome but in the reverse direction, the resulting chromosomal abnormality is called a(n:
inversion