-include eastern, western, and sub-Saharan Africa, Cambodia, North Korea in East Asia, Nepal and Bangladesh in South Asia; Haiti in the Caribbean. Mostly agricultural, just beginning to industrialize.
-12% of world's population, 7% of GNI.
-inequality is increasing. Higher fertility for large families to provide additional farm labor, etc. Incomes are growing.
-issues with malnutrition, poverty, living in rural areas. Movement to poor city conditions.