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231 terms

Psych 2H exam 3

STUDY
PLAY
For students to show the best performance on their exams, they are advised to engage in
distributed practice.
To aid students in their retention of information, which subsequently enables them to earn higher exam scores, memory researchers would highlight the use of
elaborative rehearsal.
The fading of memory with the passage of time marks decay and which of the "Seven Sins of Memory"?
Transience
Lamont is walking through his local health and nutrition store. An employee comes up and asks if he needs any assistance. Lamont asks what is the most effective and cheapest memory enhancing herbal remedy they have. If the employee answers this question based on the evidence from controlled, scientific research, he or she would recommend
any sugary liquid.
Although both Clive Wearing and a patient known as H.M. had severely damaged hippocampi or removed hippocampi, they both showed evidence of
implicit memory.
Knowing how to navigate the route from one's residence hall room to the location of one's college algebra class is an example of a
schema.
Which of these age groups has the strongest memory abilities?
young adults
According to the authors, our memory is most like
melting wax
False memories are easier to implant when the events that are said to have occurred are perceived as
plausible.
Leola has a comprehensive final for her organic chemistry class. For her to be able to retain the information from early in the semester, she should be advised to use ________ in her studying throughout the term.
distributed practice
The inability to momentarily remember a person's name, which you indeed know quite well, is an example of which of the "Seven Sins of Memory"?
Blocking
The most important factor in the majority of the cases, more than 75 percent, where DNA evidence led to the overturning of a unjust conviction of an innocent person was
faulty eyewitness identification.
With regard to the idea of patients' memories being shaped by suggestive psychotherapy techniques, psychologists
re sharply divided about whether such memories are real or false memories.
As Dominique reviews the vocabulary terms for her French class, she is most likely to experience the greatest degree of forgetting
immediately after learning new words.
An important criticism of the depth-of-processing model is that it is
unfalsifiable.
An important source of false memories comes from
source monitoring confusion.
Mnemonics will be most helpful as encoding devices if we
practice them on a regular basis.
The inability to momentarily remember a person's name, which you indeed know quite well, is an example of which of the "Seven Sins of Memory"?
Blocking
Darryl decides to start reviewing for his exam by studying 20 minutes a day for 10 days rather than just studying 3-4 hours the night before his exam. He is making use of
distributed practice.
What point did the authors make regarding claims of recovered memories of childhood abuse?
Childhood abuse claims need to be supported by supporting evidence in order to be believed as real.
For students to show the best performance on their exams, they are advised to engage in
distributed practice
Knowing how to navigate the route from one's residence hall room to the location of one's college algebra class is an example of a
schema
During lecture each day, a psychology professor may explain four main points he or she wishes the class to retain. However, most students do not think about the material again until the following class period two days later. The forgetting that occurs between classes is most likely the result of
decay
The fading of memory with the passage of time marks decay and which of the "Seven Sins of Memory"?
Transience
All night, Pedro has been staring at Samantha from across the dance floor. At the end of the night, he finally gets the courage to ask her for her telephone number. His mental repetition of the number on the drive home is one example of
rehearsal.
According to the research on the primacy effect, if your father read you a list of 10 items to pick up at the hardware store you would most easily recall those items
from early in the list.
Although both Clive Wearing and a patient known as H.M. had severely damaged hippocampi or removed hippocampi, they both showed evidence of
implicit memory.
Memory recovery from amnesia is
gradual, if at all.
In answering this, and all other questions for this exam, you are making use of
retrieval
When one attempts to recreate a retrieval environment that is as similar as possible to the initial encoding, or learning, environment as possible, he or she is making use of the principle of
encoding specifity
memory
retention of information over time
suggestive memory techniques
procedures that encourage patients to recall memories that may or may not have taken place
memory illusion
false but subjectively compelling memory
span
how much information a memory system can retain
duration
length of time for which a memory system can retain information
sensory memory
brief storage of perceptual information before it is passed to short term memory
iconic memory
visual sensory memory
echoic memory
auditory sensory memory
short-term memory
memory system that retains information for limited durations
decay
fading of information from memory
interference
loss of information from memory because of competition from additional incoming information
retroactive inhibition
interference with retention of old information due to acquisition of new information
proactive inhibition
interference with acquisition of new information due to previous learning of new information
magic number
the span of short-term memory, according to george miller; seven plus or minus two pieces of information
chunking
organizing information into meaningful groupings, allows us to extend the span of short-term memory
rehearsal
repeating information to extend the duration of retention in short-term memory
maintenance rehearsal
repeating stimuli in their original form to retain them in short term memory
elaborative rehearsal
linking stimuli to each other in a meaningful way to improve retention of information in short-term memory
levels of processing
depth of transforming information, which influences how easily we remember it
long term memory
sustained (from minutes to years) retention of information stored regarding our facts, experiences, and skills
permastore
type of long-term memory that appears to be permanent
primary effect
tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well
recency effect
tendency to remember words at the end of a list especially well
von restorff effect
tendency to remember distinctive stimuli better than less distinctive stimuli
serial position curve
graph depicting the effect of both primacy and recency on people's ability to recall items on a list.
semantic memory
our knowledge of facts about the world
episodic memory
recollection of events in our lives
explicit memory
memories we recall intentionally and of which we have conscious awareness
implicit memory
memories we dont deliberately remember or reflect o consciously
procedural memory
memory for how to do things, including motor skills and habits
priming
our ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly after we've encountered similar stimuli
Three stages of memory;
1)encoding 2)storage 3)retrieval
encoding
process of getting information into our memory banks
mnemonic
a learning aid, strategy, or device that enhances recall
storage
process of keeping information in memory
schema
organized knowledge structure or mental model that we've stored in memory
retrieval
reactivation or reconstruction of experiences from our memory stores
retrieval cues
hints that make it easier for us to recall information
recall
generating previously remembered information
recognition
selecting previously remembered information from an array of options
relearning
reacquiring knowledge that we'd previously learned but largely forgotten over time.
distributed vs. massed practice
studying information in small increments over time (distributed) versus in large increments over a brief amount of time (massed)
tip of the tongue phenomenon
experience of knowing that we know something but being unable to access it
encoding specificity
phenomenon of remembering something better when the conditions under which we retrieve information are similar to the conditions under which we encoded it
context-dependent learning
superior retrieval of memories when the external context of the original memories matches the retrieval context
state-dependent learning
superior retrieval of memories when the organism is in the same physiological or psychological state as it was during encoding
long term potentiation
gradual strengthening of the connections among neurons from repetitive stimulation
amygdala
emotional component of memories
hippocampus
factual component of memories
retrograde amnesia
loss of memories from our past
anterograde amnesia
inability to encode new memories from our experiences
meta memory
knowledge about our own memory abilities and limitations
infantile amnesia
inability of adults to remember personal experiences that took place before an early age
flashbulb memories
emotional memories that are extraordinary vivid and detailed
source monitoring
ability to identify the origins of a memory
cryptomnesia
failure to recognize our ideas originated with someone else
misinformation effect
creation of fictitious memories by providing misleading information about an event after it takes place
seven sins of memory
suggestibility, misattribution, bias, transcience, persistence, blocking, and absentmindedness
The most sensitive measure of memory is
relearning.
For students to show the best performance on their exams, they are advised to engage in
distributed practice
The first day of class, Sheila asked her professor what was the best way to learn and remember the material for the course. The professor responded, "Focus on identifying and understanding the meaning of the important terms and concepts." The instructor is advocating a ________ level of processing.
semantic
Jermaine sees a car accident and he initially estimates the offending driver to be traveling at 39 miles per hour. However, after hearing another witness's report of the cars "bumping" and answering a police officer's questions about the rate of speed when the cars "contacted," he subsequently revises his estimate to 30 miles per hour and his memory of the accident changes. This is an example of
he misinformation effect.
Evidence suggests that when the real criminal is NOT included in a "live" line-up, most witnesses
will be inaccurate and select the person who most closely resembles the real criminal.
During new worker orientation, you wish to make a good impression by being able to recall everyone's name. Research on encoding would suggest that you are most likely to forget the name of
the person immediately before you.
According to the research on the primacy effect, if your father read you a list of 10 items to pick up at the hardware store you would most easily recall those items
from early in the list
When listening to the radio, Ramona hears a song; she cannot immediately recall the band's name, but she is sure she knows the name. This is one example of
he tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
In the text, the authors discussed the astounding memory capabilities of Rajan. He could recall the digits for the number pi starting from nearly any place in the sequence. His amazing ability is due, in part, to his use of
chunking
In high school, Deanna took three years of Spanish. Upon enrolling in college ten years later, she registered for a remedial French course. When required to speak in French during class discussion with her teacher and classmates, Deanna frequently responds with Spanish words instead of French words. This is one example of
proactive inhibition
An essay exam question or a fill-in-the-blank question with no word bank is similar to the ________ method of assessing one's memory.
recall
Which of the following forms of memory requires conscious attention for encoding, storage, and retrieval?
episodic memory
Memory recovery from amnesia is
gradual, if at all.
Unlike explicit memory, implicit memory
nvolves no deliberate attention or effort.
A recognition memory task is often easier than a recall memory task because
we only have to eliminate the incorrect options to get the correct answer.
Jasmine needs to remember an 8-line poem for her 5th-grade English class next week. Her mother suggests that she link the first few words from each line with a different part of their home, starting with the front door. This suggestion is most similar to the memory strategy known as
the method of loci.
The most important factor in the majority of the cases, more than 75 percent, where DNA evidence led to the overturning of a unjust conviction of an innocent person was
faulty eyewitness identification.
A group of 3- to 6-year-old children were told about a man named "Sam Stone." For several weeks "Sam" was described to them as being clumsy. Upon his visit, he did nothing to confirm this stereotype. How did this impact the children's memory?
Over half the children, regardless of age, responded to these suggestions while lower percentages also reported that Sam soiled a bear and tore a book.
A key theme that has emerged from the memory research literature is that
active reconstruction of events alters our memory of the important and unimportant events of our lives.
Which of the following forms of memory requires conscious attention for encoding, storage, and retrieval?
episodic memory
In answering this, and all other questions for this exam, you are making use of
retrieval
Eyewitness testimony has been found to be most accurate when
the witness has ample time to observe the person under good viewing conditions
If people today were shown a picture that contain stereotypic-inconsistent information, such as that of the black man being accosted by a white man with a razor, we would expect most of them to
recall stereotypic-consistent, not inconsistent, information when questioned later.
When asked to recall single-digit numbers presented in various digit span sizes, the typical adult starts to encounter difficulty once they get past approximately ________ digits.
5
According to the authors, most of the events we experience
are never encoded and thus never stored in long-term memory.
Roseanne claims that she can remember instances of childhood sexual abuse that started at 6 months of age. Why are most psychologists likely to be skeptical of this and other such claims?
Because infantile amnesia makes it unlikely that these are true memories from that age
As an adult and a parent of a 4-year-old child, Camille has seen many children begin to cry when placed on the lap of the mall Santa or Easter Bunny. When discussing this with her brother, Luis, he reminds her of the time when she was 5 that she began crying hysterically, ran fromf Santa's lap, and was lost for nearly two hours. Luis has made all of this up, but Camille has a clear and distinct memory of the event he described. This demonstrates the role of ________ in producing false memories.
plausible events
As we age, our ability to recognize the strengths and limitations of our own memories improves. This is known as
meta memory
Lamont is walking through his local health and nutrition store. An employee comes up and asks if he needs any assistance. Lamont asks what is the most effective and cheapest memory enhancing herbal remedy they have. If the employee answers this question based on the evidence from controlled, scientific research, he or she would recommend
any sugary liquid
Just before taking your French I exam you were reviewing 5 terms that you had missed on the last vocabulary test. When you get to your exam, you find that you have an easy time answering several questions because they are related terms you just studied. This is an example of the
recency effect
When information that you learned in your high school psychology class gets in the way of learning new information from your college-level psychology class, ________ has occurred.
interference
Seth is using visualization to imagine himself throwing pitches for strikes when he plays baseball. The ability to recognize that he is constructing these images rather than recalling them from an actual game in which he played results from accurate
source monitoring
Dr. Vargas can remember hundreds of students' names from his twenty-five years of university teaching, but has difficulty remembering the new three digit area code for his home phone number. This is one illustration of
the paradox of memory
ideki and Thao are reviewing for an exam. Thao asks the following question: "What term refers to how people use information from the past in the present?" Hideki would be most correct if he answered
memory
Emilio is seeing a sports psychologist to help improve his mental preparation and performance. The psychologist asks Emilio to see himself making his free throws. As Emilio visualizes his dribbling, shooting motion, and release, he sees himself as an outside observer would. Memory researchers argue this demonstrates
the reconstructive nature of memory
Schemas can lead to memory errors through the confirmation bias and stereotyping because we
fail to consider how an individual differs in important ways from a group stereotype.
Researchers have attempted to implant false memories in the memories of students at Gotham State University. To be certain that the event never occurred, they asked students if they recall getting to meet Yosemite Sam (a Warner Brothers character) at Disneyland. When approximately 41% of the students reported this memory, the researchers knew it was indeed evidence of a false memory because
the memory was of an impossible event
chemas and scripts are valuable memory tools because they
ssist us in interpreting new and unfamiliar situations.
The misinformation effect is most similar to which example below from the "Seven Sins of Memory"?
suggestibility
Gingko, or any other memory booster, works by increasing the amount of ________ in the human brain.
acetylcholine
Schemas can lead to memory errors through the confirmation bias and stereotyping because we
fail to consider how an individual differs in important ways from a group stereotype.
Research on flashbulb memories indicates
they are largely susceptible to the same errors as other types of memory
After presenting groups of research participants words like thread, eye, pin, syringe, sewing, sharp, and thimble, a memory researcher asks the participants whether they remember seeing the word needle. The fact that many participants do is an example of
memory illusion
Exposing people to stereotype-consistent information before meeting with an individual from the stereotyped group is often sufficient to produce stereotypic interpretations of that person's actions and thoughts. This is an example of
priming.
In his research on long-term memory, psychologist Harry Bahrick found that memory declined
markedly for about two years, but only gradually thereafter.
when one attempts to recreate a retrieval environment that is as similar as possible to the initial encoding, or learning, environment as possible, he or she is making use of the principle of
encoding specificity.
If people today were shown a picture that contain stereotypic-inconsistent information, such as that of the black man being accosted by a white man with a razor, we would expect most of them to
look for other examples of stereotypic-inconsistent information in their social world.
During which of Piaget's stages does a child demonstrate the ability reason about abstract ideas and novel information?
Formal operational
Which of the following is an example of imprinting?
Young geese demonstrate an attachment to a round ball
At five years old, Sammy is better able to understand his friends' feelings as compared to when he was three years old. Sammy is acquiring a
theory of mind
One's accumulated knowledge gained over time is called
crystallized intelligence
Which research method is most suitable for studying factors that influence behavioral change over time?
longitudinal
Elementary school teachers from China would likely employ a(n)________ style of teaching
authoritarian
During menarche teenagers experience
menstruation
Piaget overestimated the degree to which
object permanence develops in children.
According to Kohlberg, behavior motivated by the avoidance of punishment represents ________ morality.
preconventional
Responses to moral dilemmas are only moderately correlated with actual behavior. Which of the following may be seen to increase the strength of correlations between hypothetical responses and actual behavior?
Posing dilemmas focused on realistic situations that are likely to be faced on a regular basis
Jean Piaget is best known for his pioneering work in the area of ________ development.
cognitive
Miss Johnson gave Mark and Tia equal sized lumps of clay. Tia immediately rolled hers into a long shape. Mark cried and complained that Tia had received more clay. Mark's behavior represents
an inability to conserve
Children involved in "Strange Situation" research change attachment styles frequently in follow-up studies, meaning that this method of measuring attachment style lacks
reliability
Which of the following represents cross-cultural differences in attachment study research?
More infants from Japan fall into the insecure-anxious catergory as compared to U.S. infants.
According to Vygotsky, cognitive development results from
scaffolding
Responses to moral dilemmas are only moderately correlated with actual behavior. Which of the following may be seen to increase the strength of correlations between hypothetical responses and actual behavior?
Posing dilemmas focused on realistic situations that are likely to be faced on a regular basis
According to Piaget, egocentrism involves
the perception that others view the world as you do.
According to Kohlberg, postconventional morality involves
behavior motivated by doing what is best for the greatest number of people.
Which of the following is true concerning the nature-nurture debate?
Most researchers believe that genes and environment interact to influence human behavior.
ue has devoted so much time to her engineering career that at age 70 she has never been free to pursue many of her personal interests. Sue's feelings of missed opportunities suggest a sense of
despair.
esearch investigating the causes of gender differences in behavior suggests that
females exposed to excessive levels of testosterone during birth tend to enjoy rough and tumble play.
Which of the following research designs would be least effective in exploring the cognitive developmental issues facing 7-year-olds?
case study research designs
Which of the following statements is illustrative of the post hoc fallacy?
Believing that because most professional athletes lift weights, weightlifting produces professional athletes
Formal operational thinking is likely required to successfully resolve Erikson's
identity versus role confusion crisis.
According to Erikson, which is true?
Unsuccessful resolution of a crisis decreases the likelihood that a future crisis will be successfully resolved.
Piaget's theory applies to such topics as
creating lesson plans for first grade students.
Elementary school teachers from China would likely employ a(n)________ style of teaching.
authoritarian
During the ________ stage of development, a child will not have developed object permanence.
sensorimotor
Karla can speed on a certain stretch of the interstate without being ticketed, yet she decides not to speed because it is unlawful. Karla's reasoning reflects ________ reasoning.
conventional
The belief that children will have increased cognitive abilities if their parents play classical music for them during infancy reflects
pronurture perspective
The rooting reflex refers to a newborn's tendency to
open the mouth to seek food when touched on the cheek.
According to Piaget, students begin to successfully complete division and multiplication problems during the ________ stage.
concrete operational
Gail has just turned 53 and is beginning menopause. Gail is likely to begin experiencing
hot flashes
Authoritarian parents are ________ disciplinarians and they are ________ with punishment.
strict; quick
According to Piaget, equilibration involves the processes of
assimilation and accommodation
The heart, lungs, and brain begin to form during the ________ period of prenatal development.
embryonic
Ken is able to perform mathematical operations only if he can use manipulatives and familiar examples in working up his answers. Ken is in Piaget's ________ stage.
concrete operational
During which of Piaget's stages does a child demonstrate the ability reason about abstract ideas and novel information?
formal operational
Which of the following is true regarding parenting research?
Children of single fathers do just as well on measures of well-being as do children of single mothers.
The body's reproductive organs are called
primary sex organs
Puberty is associated with the onset of
menarche
People typically experience declines in vision, hearing, and smell at about age
60-69
As compared to Piaget's theory, Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development best explains how a child learns to
cross a street safely for the first time.
Johnny has never been harassed by the school bully but most of his friends have. Johnny's decision to stand up to the bully to protect his friends represents a type of ________ morality.
postconventional
Which of the following is true regarding Piaget's and Erikson's theories?
Children in Piaget's preoperational stage should also be working on issues in identity versus identity confusion stage of development.
Brenda's parents are political conservatives while she identifies more with liberal political views. When asked her political orientation, Brenda seems uncertain and does not respond. Brenda is dealing with the ________ crisis.
identity vs. confusion
Harlowe's study of infant rhesus monkeys showed that
surrogate mothers who were soft to the touch but did not provide food and water produced the strongest attachment responses.
Which of the following research designs would be least effective in exploring the cognitive developmental issues facing 7-year-olds?
Case study research designs
Asking students to predict how the course of history may have changed if the first president were a woman would likely motivate students in which of Piaget's stages to answer thoroughly?
formal operational
According to Kohlberg, behavior motivated by the avoidance of punishment represents ________ morality.
preconventional
Joseph refuses to vote in major elections because he believes that most political candidates seeking office are motivated by personal gain and not to create positive social change. Joseph's reasoning reflects
postconventional reasoning.
Marko believed that all red go-carts were fast until he drove a very slow one at the fair. Marko's revised views on red go-carts illustrates
accomodation
Which developmental theorist is likely to be most criticized for the use of broad age ranges in various stages of his theory?
Erikson
Empty nest researchers have found that
most empty nesters experience an increase in life satisfaction after their children leave home.
Which is true concerning research related to the "Mozart Effect"?
Weak evidence exists supporting the claims that exposure to classical music improves cognitive functioning.
During the autonomy versus shame and doubt stage of development, the key social agent influencing the resolution of the crisis is likely to be
parents
Sir Francis Galton (1884)
intelligence is a byproduct of sensory capacity
Clark Wissler (1901)
various senses are uncorrelated with one another and with school performance
Alfred Binet and Henri Simon (1904)
first intelligence test
Americans tend to view intelligence as:
the capacity to reason well and learn quickly ("to think on one's feet")
Charles Spearman (1927)
these correlations suggest a single common factor across all aspects of mental ability:
Raymond Cattell (1971)
distinguished two types of intelligence
Fluid Intelligence
the capacity to learn new problems
Crystallized Intelligence
the accumulated knowledge of the world over time
Howard Gardner (1983)
alternatively suggests there are eight separate intelligences
Robert Sternberg's (1983
model posits the existence of three types of intelligence:
Analytical Intelligence
ability to reason logically
Practical Intelligence:
ability to solve real-world problems, especially people problems
Creative Intelligence:
ability to come up with novel and effective answers to questions
Modern intelligence tests don't
typically assess practical intelligence
IQ =
mental age ÷ chronological age x 100
deviation IQ
expression of IQ relative to same aged peers (eliminated age effects with Stern's formula)
Culture-Fair Tests
attempt to eliminate biases for people who speak language differently than how the WAIS is written
Raven's Progressive Matrices
most widely used
Standardized Tests
such as the SAT, correlate highly (0.7 - 0.8) with IQ tests, but attempt to emphasize achievement
Mental Retardation
Onset prior to adulthood,IQ ≤ 70, impaired adaptive functions
Mild Retardation
makes up 85% of retardation cases, and most can be mainstreamed into regular classrooms
mild retardation is caused by
including fetal alcohol syndrome, fragile X syndrome, and Down syndrome
Divergent thinking:
the capacity to generate many solutions to problems
Convergent thinking:
the capacity to find the single best solution to a given problem
Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
he ability to understand our emotions and those of others
Wisdom:
the application of intelligence toward a common good
prenatal
prior to birth
blastocyst
ball of identical cells early in pregnancy that haven't yet begun to take on any specific function in a body part
embryo
second to eighty week of prenatal development, during which limbs, facial features, and major organs of the body take form
fetus
period of prenatal development from ninth week until birth after all major organs are established and physical maturation is the primary change
concrete operations
7-11 years old, egocentrism wanes gradually
formal operational period
age 11 to adulthood - apply psychological operations to abstract entities too; able to think hypothetically and reason abstractly
elaboration
embellishing information to be remembered to make it more memorable
During Piaget's concrete-operational stages,
children are first able to represent objects mentally in different ways and to perform mental operations
hypothetical and deductive reasoning are characteristics of children in Piagets__ stage
formal operational
Piaget's account of formal operations has been criticized because adolescents' reasoning is often less sophisticated than the theory predicts because
the formal-operational stage is portrayed as the final stage of intellectual development
authoritarian parenting
combines high control with little warmth
authoritative parenting
combines a fair degree of parental control with being warm and responsive to children
uninvolved parenting
provides neither warmth nor control
permissive
combines low control with high warmth