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Arts and Humanities
ESL praxis test
Terms in this set (207)
Perspective approach to grammar that emphasized correct speech should be used and that language rules are highest importance
Type of linguistics that identifies and offers solutions to language problems.
Popular between 1930 and 1960; founded by Bloomfield; emphasizes concrete linguistic data and organizing data into certain levels
Type of linguistics that emphasizes difference between L1 (native language) and L2 (target language). L1 is thought to hinder L2 development.
Introduced by Chomsky and Jakobson; emphasizes the creativity of human language and states that humans can understand an infinite number of sentences that have never been heard.
The essential meaning of a sentence.
Language (and content) that is adjusted to the level of a student making it more understandable for them.
Vowels, consonants, stress, tone, parts of speech, notions, functions of language, steps in acquiring language.
Specific logical and structural rules of language.
How context affects meaning of words and sentences.
The system of language the learner is developing where L1 and L2 interact to provide deeper meaning and understanding of L2.
International Phonetic Alphabet; sound-based notion designed by the Latin alphabet that signifies different sounds.
Awareness of the rules of language.
Insertion of L1 in the L2's grammatical structure when speaking.
Verbs functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information.
Could, would, should
Helping verbs, do, doing, did
Changing sentences into questions by inverting the verb.
Language that changes based on social situation and who is speaking.
Tone and pitch, how the pitch changes over a syllable.
Knowledge and comprehension of speech production and how to use speech appropriately
The study of the brain mechanisms and anatomical structures that underlie language competence, development, and performance.
The nerve cells that cover the surface of the brain
The two hemispheres of the brain.
Pathways that allow for communication between cerebral hemispheres.
One side of the brain has control over the other side.
Language dysfunction resulting from brain injuries.
Impaired syntax and speech
Substitute words semantically unrelated to intended messages
Difficulty finding words to use
Cognitive functions that are located in one hemisphere of the brain.
Language facility independent of other systems
Critical Age Hypothesis
The hypothesis that between birth and puberty is the best time to learn a new language
The study of word formation and the structure of words
The smallest unit of meaningful sound
A morpheme that can stand alone and have meaning
A morpheme that is always attached to another morpheme because it cannot stand on its own and have meaning.
A morpheme that indicates some grammatical property but doesn't change part of speech.
A morpheme that is added to a word that usually changes that word's part of speech. EX: FRIEND + LY = friendly
The conventional spelling system of a language
Rules that govern the formation of words into sentences and the relationship between words, phrases, and clauses.
End result of transformations in a sentence.
Involves the study of meaning in morphemes, words, idioms, and other phrases and sentences.
Meaning of morphemes and words
Words that sound the same but have different meanings and spellings.
Words that are spelled the same but have different meanings
Studies the processes involved in language acquisition and the relationship of language and the functioning of the human mind
A term used to describe the aspects of linguistics applied towards the connection between language and society and the way we use language in different social situations.
Poverty of Stimulus
Kids acquire language easily and rapidly even if they are not exposed to stimuli
Stage that people use only one word 'sentences'
Language learner reaches a plateau in language acquisition and makes mistakes often
Ability to use language in many different situations
Examples lead to rules
Rules lead to examples
Use of longer sentences that lack function and sometimes meaning.
Everyone's unique way of speaking.
Language used by a group of speakers
Where many languages are spoken, one language is chosen to ease communication
Lingua Franca in a simplified form
When Pidgin is widely used and children learn this as their first language.
Argot and Jargon
Specific vocabulary that is used by professionals and trade groups.
Uses the symbol of one word or syllable to represent another word or syllable that is pronounced the same.
The study of the sounds of a language, how they are organized, how they function, and how they are produced.
An abstract unit of sound that represents a class of sounds including all of the variations of that sound
The variations of a phoneme that do not alter meaning
Two words that have the same number of sound segments but have one sound that is different. EX: pat/cat
A process that happens when a person is fluent in two languages and uses them interchangeably.
A theory that states that the structure of language can be learned through communicating with native speakers
Questions at the end of the sentence
The study of how speech sounds are made or articulated.
The physical properties of speech
Sound formed by using both lips (p, b, m)
Sounds formed with the upper teeth and lower lip (f, v)
Sounds are produced by placing the tip of the tongue between the teeth (th, eth)
Sounds are produced by pressing the middle of the tongue against the hard palate of the top of the mouth
Sounds are formed with the tongue tip behind the upper front teeth
Sounds formed with the front part of the tongue on the alveolar ridge (t, s, d, z, n)
Sounds produced with the middle of the tongue pressed against the soft palate (hard c, k)
Sounds are produced with the tongue at the front of the palate (sh, ch)
All consonants that use the vocal chords and produce a vibrations
Sounds made by forcing air through a narrow opening in the mouth (almost blocking the airstream)
Combining the brief stopping of the air stream with an obstructed release that causes friction (j in jeep)
Sounds produced without active use of tongue or other parts of mouth (h)
Closing the flow of air at some point in the mouth and releasing it (bilabial- p and b, alveolar- t and d, velar- k and g)
Air flow is allowed out of the nose and these are always voiced (m and n)
L and r
Usually produced with the tongue moving or gliding to or from a position associated with a neighboring vowel sound (w in we or y in you)
Words that describe a noun. EX: Sad, happy, easy, unimportant
Words that tell how, when, or where something happens. EX: Quickly, yesterday, there
Words used before a noun to identify what it refers to. EX: As, a, the, and
Words that join words or sentences. EX: After, although, and, because, before, so, until, while
Words that help to show which or how many people or things are being referenced. EX: This, that, those, some, any, much, enough, a few
A form of a verb that does not indicate a particular tense, number, or person
-ING form of infinitives
Words that are a person, place, or thing
Present Perfect Tense
Tense used to talk about past actions that have had an impact on the present moment. EX: I have written to Peter so he knows we are on our way.
Past Perfect Tense
Tense used when already talking about the past and want to talk about an earlier time also in the past. EX: Yesterday I found some old letters that bob wrote to me from France.
Words used as a substitute for a noun. EX: I, you, we, he, she, it
Words used to show possession. EX: My, mine, your, theirs
Words that refer to time, place, and movement. EX: At, in, on, next, from, above
The study of the sounds in a language
The entire vocabulary of a language
The study of symbols used in a language
a speech sound that consists of either two vowels or a vowel and a semivowel contained in a single syllable
three vowel sounds together
The literal definition of a word that is not inclusive of all of the things that a word is associated with
Implications of a word or phrase, instead of the exact meaning.
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages
Audio Lingual Method
Bilingual Advisory Committee
Bilingual Certificate of Competence
Bilingual Cross-cultural Language and Academic Development
Bilingual Instructional Assistant
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
Basic Inventory of Natural Language
Bilingual Sytnax Measures
Center for Applied Linguistics
Computer Assisted Language Learning
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
Center for Bilingual Education and Research
Center on English Learning and Achievement
Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence
Center for Multi-lingual Multi-cultural Research
Community Language Learner
English for Academic Purposes
English for Business and Economics
English for General Purposes
English as a Foreign Language
English Language Learner
English Language Development
English for Occupational Purposes
English as a Second Dialect
English as a Second Language
English to Speakers of Other Languages
English for Specific Purposes
English for Science and Technology
Fluent English Proficient
Fluent English Speaking
Foreign Language in the Elementary School
High Intensity Language Training
Home Language Survey
Higher Order Thinking
International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language
Individuals with Disabilities Act
Intensive English Program/Individualized Education Plan
First and native language
Target and second language
Language Acquisition Device
Language Assessment Scales
Culturally and Linguistically Diverse
Language Experience Approach
Limited English Proficiency
Limited English Speaking
Migrant Education Program
Office of Civil Rights
Potentially English Proficient
Student Acquiring English
Special Alternative Instructional Program
Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English
Structured English Immersion
Sheltered English Teaching
Second Language Acquisition
Second Language Learner
Sheltered Subject Matter Instruction
Separate Underliying Proficiency
Silent Way Learning
Transitional Bilingual Education
Teaching English as a Foreign Language
Teaching English as a Second Language
Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages
Test of English as a Foreign Language
Total Physical Response
Zone of Proximal Development
Developed Community Language Learning (students sit in a circle and communicate in L1 or L2, teacher writes down the conversation and talks about language structures)
Believed there was a silent period; came up with Total Physical Response, and thought sequencing of learning was important
Claimed linguistic phenomena could be observed and measured while isolated from its environment
Came up with Structural Linguistics, Contrastive Analysis, and focused on observable performance, conditioning reinforcement, and giving rewards for specific actions
Came up with Universal Grammar/Language Acquisition Device, noted the creative aspect of language
A Constructivist who believed in the growth of knowledge being a series of continually learned logical structures; came up with the Cognitive Development Theory (four stages from sensorimotor to formal operations)
A Constructivist who came up with the Social-Cultural Theory, Zone of Proximal Development, and the Types of Speech
Believed that many schools should place emphasis on a student's cultural background and use it to learn another culture. Relationships between students and teachers are extremely important.
Believed that many schools should focus on social interaction between students and that the lessons for English Language Learners should be well structured and organized as well as consistent to scaffold properly.
Believed that learning in one area does not facilitate the learning of another area.
Asserted that positive reinforcement is more effective at changing and establishing behavior than punishment.
Theorist who came up with the Input Hypothesis, Monitor Hypothesis, Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis, Natural Order Hypothesis, and the Affective Filter
Debunks SUP and Balance Theory; CUP; believed in empowering students through interactions with others; and came up with the Threshold Hypothesis
Common Underlying Principle
Known for "Pedagogy of the Oppressed"
Dual Language Bilingual Education was thought to be the only model of dual language acquisition that actually worked
Process by which students develop both fluency and proficiency while continuing to develop proficiency in the first language.
Skinner was one of them; thought that language learning is the result of imitation and practice
AKA Prussian Method. Approach that emphasized the use of rules and direct application of language skills in order to most effectively learn a language
Teaching technique based on learning grammar as the foundation of the curriculum
Approach that emphasizes the understanding that the human brain is a neural network or group of networks that consists of nodes that operate in a non-linear way when stimulated.
Effective Communicative Approach
Approach that emphasizes the use of direct communication between individuals as being a primary means of language development
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