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Chapter 1, Biomes and Ecosystems

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biodiversity
the diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole)
abiotic
nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate
biome
a major biotic community characterized by the dominant forms of plant life and the prevailing climate
terrestrial
operating or living or growing on land
latitude
an imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator
elevation
distance of something above a reference point (such as sea level)
climate
the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time
climatograph
combination of a bar and line graph showing annual precipitation and average temperatures
adaptation
the responsive adjustment of a sense organ (as the eye) to varying conditions (as of light)
structural adaptation
a physical change of an organism's body having a specific function that contributes to the survival of the organism
physiological adaptations
Changes to an organisms metabolic or internal processes (Example - Bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics)
behavioural
changes to the behavior of an organism, helping it survive
habitat
the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs
nutrients
all the chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life
photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
population
a group of organisms of the same species in a given area
community
(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
ecological
of or relating to the science of ecology
hierarchy
(n.) any system of things or people arranged or graded one above another in order of rank
symbiosis
relationship in which two species live closely together
mutualism
the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent
parasitism
the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)
niche
(ecology) the status of an organism within its environment and community (affecting its survival as a species)
competition
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
predation
the act of preying by a predator who kills and eats the prey