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45 terms

Nervous System

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neurology
medical specialty of disorders of the nervous system
neurologist
specialist of disorders of the nervous system
parasympathetic
division of autonomic nervous system; calms body - slows heartbeat but stimulates digestion
sympathetic division
arouses body for action by increasing heart rate and respiratory rate to increase oxygen supply to brain and muscles
nerve
a cord of fibers bound together with connective tissues
neuron
nerve cell ( cell body, dendrites, axons)
myelin
material of the sheath around the axon of a nerve
synapse
junction between two nerve cells, or a nerve fiber and its target cell where electricacl impulses are transmitted between cells
neurotransmitter
chemical agent that relays messages from one nerve cell to the next
cerebellum
the most posterior area of the brain located between the midbrain and cerebral hemispheres; motor control
cerebrum
cerebral hemispheres
frontal lobe
front area of cereral hemisphere; responsible for intellect, planning, problem solving and voluntary motor control of muscles
parietal lobe
posterior to frontal lobe; recieves and interprets sensory info - like spoken words
temporal lobe
below frontal and parietal lobes; intereprets sensory experiences
occipital lobe
posterior part of cerebral hemisphere interprets visual images and written words
cerebrospinal fluid
fluid formed in the ventricles of the brain and surrounds the brain and spinal cord
thalamus
mass of gray matter under the ventricle in each cerebral hemisphere ; receives all sensory impulses and channels them to different regions for interpretation
hypothalamus
an endocrine gland in the floor and wall of third ventricle in the brain - regulates blood pressure, body temp, h2o and electrolyte balance
meninges
three layered covering of brain and spinal cord...
alzheimers disease
most common form of dementia - nerve cells in areas of the brain associated with memory and cognition are replaced by clumps and tangles...
vascular dementia
second common form of dementia arteries to brain narrow causing 02 deprivation
epilepsy
chronic brain disorder due to paroxysmal excessive neuronal discharges
tourette syndrome
disorder of multiple motor and vocal tics
narcolepsy
involuntary falling asleep
stroke
acute clinical event caused by impaired cerebral circulation
syncope
temporary loss of consciousness and postural tone due to diminished cerebral blood flow
migraines
severe headache confined to one side of the head
encephalitis
inflammation of brain cells and tissues
aneurysm
small circumscribed dilation of an artery or cardiac chamber
coup
injury to the brain directly under the skull at the point of contact
contussion
hemorrhage into a tissue (bruising) including the brain
concussion
mild brain injury
menengitis
inflammation of the meninges
fibromyalgia
pain in the muscle fibers
demyelination
process of losing the myelin sheath of a nerve fiber
multiple sclerosis
myelin sheaths around axon of brain and spinal cord are damaged
herniated disc
tear in ring allows soft central portion to bulge out
poliomyelitis
inflammation of gray matter of the spinal cord leading to paralysis of limbs and muscles of respiratory
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
motor neuron disease
spina bifida
failure of one or more vertebral arches to close during fetal development
spina bifida cystica
meninges and spinal cord protruding through the absent vertebral arch
cerebral palsy
motor impairment resulting from brain damage in an infant or young child
ataxic
poor sense of balance and coordination
athetoid
limbs involuntarily writhe and move
spastic
muscles are tight and resistant to stretch