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74 terms

A&P Ch. 12 blood

*liquid part of blood
*Water,waste,proteins,nutrients part of it
normal blood volume in adult
*4-6 liters
*7-9% of total body weight
which sex has more blood
formed elements
Cellular components suspended in plasma
blood is
*Slightly alkaline
*PH 7.35- PH 7.45
*Blood ph decreases toward neutral
very sick person
blood donations
*Must be "typed & cross-matched"
*Only stored for 6 wks
*Most valuable during "GOLDEN HOUR"
golden hour
In severe blood loss,the first hour
plasma volume expanders
*May help maintain blood volume after hemorrhage for only short periods of time
*These solutions don't have needed components in whole blood to maintain overtime
ABO & RH system
*how blood is identified as a specific type
*are identified by certain antigens in RBC
substance that can stimulate the body to make antibodies
substance made by body in response to stimulation by antigen (what causes its formation)
when antibodies react with their antigens causing CLUMPING
ABO system
*type A
*type B
*type AB
*type O
type A
A antigens , Anti- B antibodies
type B
B antigens, Anti- A antibodies
type AB
* A & B antigens, no Anti antiboidies
type O
*no type Antigens, Both Anti- A & B antibodies
RH system
*RH- negative & RH -positive
*first discovered in rhesus monkey
RH negative
no RH factor present
RH positive
Rh factor present in RBC
erythroblastosis fetalis
*disease when baby is born to a RH negative mom & RH positive dad
*difficulty w/ RH blood factor arises
plasma proteins
most abundant type of solute in plasma

*Alumins-retain water in blood
*Globulins-antibodies help protect us from infections
*Fibrinogen- blood clotting
Prothrombin- blood clotting
blood plasma
liquid fraction of whole blood minus formed elements
formed elements
plateletes-( thrombocytes)
granular leukocytes (philis)
have granules in cytoplasm
nongranular leukocytes (cytes)
dont have granules in cytoplasm
red bone marrow (myeloid tissue)
*forms all blood cells except lymphocytes & monocytes
lymphatic tissue( lymphoid)
in lymph nodes,thymus,spleen
2 types connective tissue
myeloid & lymphatic
*make blood cells for body
formation of new blood cells
most blood diseases
*result from failure of myeloid & lymphatic tissues
*causes :toxic chemical,radiation,inherited defects,nutritional deficiencies & cancer
Aspiration biopsy cytology (ABC)
allows examination of blood forming tissues ,to assist diagnosis of blood diseases
replacing destoryed blood forming tissues
bone marrow,cord blood,hematopoietic stem cell transplants
neutrophil (WBC)
(formed element)
*immune defense
*most numerous/ bacterial infection
erythrocyte (RBC)
(formed element)
oxygn & carbon dioxide transport
eosinophil (WBC)
(formed element)
*defense against parasites
*allergic reactions
basophil (WBC)
(formed element)
*secrete histamine-inflammatory response
*heparin secretion- anti coagulation
B lymphocyte (WBC)
(formed element)
antibody production
T lymphocyte(WBC)
(formed element )
*direct attack on bacteria
*cellular immune response
monocyte (WBC)
(formed element)
*immune defenses
*engulf larger bacteria &cancer cells
blood clotting
Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
*most of oxygen transported in blood
*tough & flexible plasma membrane
*biocaoncave disk shape
*no nucleus-provide more space for hemoglobin
RBC named according to size
*normocytes-normal size
red pigment
*critical componet -iron
hemoglobin content
*normochromic-normal HB
*hypochromic-low HB
*hyperchromic-high HB
function of RBC
*transport of respiratory gases (oxygn& carb.diox)
*homeostasis of acid balance
hemoglobin & Oxygen
hemaglobin & carbon dioxide
complete blood cell count (CBC)
test to measure amounts of blood constitutes
is volume of whole blood that is RBC sample
* "buffy coat" -white blood cells & platelets
RBC disorders
*overproduction of RBC
*signs: increase blood thickness/hemorrhages/coagulation problems
*TX: blood removal/chemotherapy
*low numbers of abnormal or defective RBC
*low HB level -below 9g (anemia)
* low tissue oxygen levels/tired all the time/weakness
normal HB levels
12-14g /100 ml blood
hemorrhagic anemia
caused by decrease in #of RBC lost by bleeding
*acute-blood loss IMMEDIATE (surgery)
*chronic-blood loss OVERTIME(cancer)
anaplastic anemia
*low RBC numbers
*destruction of bone marrow
*from toxic chemicals,drugs
deficiency anemias
inadequate supply of substance needed for RBC production
pernicious anemia
*vitamin b12 deficiency
*genetic-related,autoimmune disease
folate deficiency anemia
*folate vitamin b9 deficiency
*common in alcohol n malnutrition
iron deficiency anemia
*deficiency or inability to absorb iron
*tx-oral administration
hemolytic anemias
*decreased RBC life span or rate of destruction
* jaundice,swelling of spleen,gallstone formation
sickle cell anemia
*abnormal hemoglobin
*found in black people
*sickle cell shaped
thalassenia anemia
*inherited anemia
*RBCs microcytic &short lived
*skeletal deformities/swelling of spleen&liver
hemolytic disease of newborn & erythroblastosis fetalis
*blood ABO or RH factoring compatibility b/w mother and baby during pregnancy
*destroy the unborn baby's red cells
*jaundice,intravascular coagulation,heart &lung damage
*TX: blood transfusions, rhogam
white blood cells(leukocytes)
*presence of granules or absence of granules
*WBC count-normal 5k-10k mm3 of blood
*abnormally LOW WBC count
*malfunction of blood forming tissues (AIDS)
abnormally HIGH WBC count
*bacterial infections
*classic sign in blood cancers (leukemia)
WBC - related blood cancer
infectious mononucleolis
*virus present in saliva
*fever/fatigue/sore throat/rash/swollen lymph node
*resolve 4-6 weeks
*blood clotting
*blood-vessel damage
*platelet plug
*become part of clot itself
clotting mechanism
1-damaged tissue cells release clotting factors
6. fibrin
*tangle to trap RBC blood clot
altering blood clotting mechanism
*vitamin k
*coumadin delayclotting
clotting disorders
1. thrombus- stationary
2. embolus-circulating
3.hemophilia-"bleeding disease" inherited/inability to produce blood clotting factor
4.thrombocytopenia-reduced platelet count / bone marrow destruction