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*liquid part of blood
*Water,waste,proteins,nutrients part of it

normal blood volume in adult

*4-6 liters
*7-9% of total body weight

which sex has more blood


formed elements

Cellular components suspended in plasma

blood is

*Slightly alkaline
*PH 7.35- PH 7.45


*Blood ph decreases toward neutral
very sick person

blood donations

*Must be "typed & cross-matched"
*Only stored for 6 wks
*Most valuable during "GOLDEN HOUR"

golden hour

In severe blood loss,the first hour

plasma volume expanders

*May help maintain blood volume after hemorrhage for only short periods of time
*These solutions don't have needed components in whole blood to maintain overtime

ABO & RH system

*how blood is identified as a specific type
*are identified by certain antigens in RBC


substance that can stimulate the body to make antibodies


substance made by body in response to stimulation by antigen (what causes its formation)


when antibodies react with their antigens causing CLUMPING

ABO system

*type A
*type B
*type AB
*type O

type A

A antigens , Anti- B antibodies

type B

B antigens, Anti- A antibodies

type AB

* A & B antigens, no Anti antiboidies

type O

*no type Antigens, Both Anti- A & B antibodies

RH system

*RH- negative & RH -positive
*first discovered in rhesus monkey

RH negative

no RH factor present

RH positive

Rh factor present in RBC

erythroblastosis fetalis

*disease when baby is born to a RH negative mom & RH positive dad
*difficulty w/ RH blood factor arises

plasma proteins

most abundant type of solute in plasma

*Alumins-retain water in blood
*Globulins-antibodies help protect us from infections
*Fibrinogen- blood clotting
Prothrombin- blood clotting

blood plasma

liquid fraction of whole blood minus formed elements

formed elements

plateletes-( thrombocytes)

granular leukocytes (philis)

have granules in cytoplasm

nongranular leukocytes (cytes)

dont have granules in cytoplasm

red bone marrow (myeloid tissue)

*forms all blood cells except lymphocytes & monocytes

lymphatic tissue( lymphoid)

in lymph nodes,thymus,spleen

2 types connective tissue

myeloid & lymphatic
*make blood cells for body


formation of new blood cells

most blood diseases

*result from failure of myeloid & lymphatic tissues
*causes :toxic chemical,radiation,inherited defects,nutritional deficiencies & cancer

Aspiration biopsy cytology (ABC)

allows examination of blood forming tissues ,to assist diagnosis of blood diseases

replacing destoryed blood forming tissues

bone marrow,cord blood,hematopoietic stem cell transplants

neutrophil (WBC)

(formed element)
*immune defense
*most numerous/ bacterial infection

erythrocyte (RBC)

(formed element)
oxygn & carbon dioxide transport

eosinophil (WBC)

(formed element)
*defense against parasites
*allergic reactions

basophil (WBC)

(formed element)
*secrete histamine-inflammatory response
*heparin secretion- anti coagulation

B lymphocyte (WBC)

(formed element)
antibody production

T lymphocyte(WBC)

(formed element )
*direct attack on bacteria
*cellular immune response

monocyte (WBC)

(formed element)
*immune defenses
*engulf larger bacteria &cancer cells


blood clotting

Red blood cells (erythrocytes)

*most of oxygen transported in blood
*tough & flexible plasma membrane
*biocaoncave disk shape
*no nucleus-provide more space for hemoglobin

RBC named according to size

*normocytes-normal size


red pigment
*critical componet -iron

hemoglobin content

*normochromic-normal HB
*hypochromic-low HB
*hyperchromic-high HB

function of RBC

*transport of respiratory gases (oxygn& carb.diox)
*homeostasis of acid balance


hemoglobin & Oxygen


hemaglobin & carbon dioxide

complete blood cell count (CBC)

test to measure amounts of blood constitutes


is volume of whole blood that is RBC sample
* "buffy coat" -white blood cells & platelets

RBC disorders



*overproduction of RBC
*signs: increase blood thickness/hemorrhages/coagulation problems
*TX: blood removal/chemotherapy


*low numbers of abnormal or defective RBC
*low HB level -below 9g (anemia)
* low tissue oxygen levels/tired all the time/weakness

normal HB levels

12-14g /100 ml blood

hemorrhagic anemia

caused by decrease in #of RBC lost by bleeding
*acute-blood loss IMMEDIATE (surgery)
*chronic-blood loss OVERTIME(cancer)

anaplastic anemia

*low RBC numbers
*destruction of bone marrow
*from toxic chemicals,drugs

deficiency anemias

inadequate supply of substance needed for RBC production

pernicious anemia

*vitamin b12 deficiency
*genetic-related,autoimmune disease

folate deficiency anemia

*folate vitamin b9 deficiency
*common in alcohol n malnutrition

iron deficiency anemia

*deficiency or inability to absorb iron
*tx-oral administration

hemolytic anemias

*decreased RBC life span or rate of destruction
* jaundice,swelling of spleen,gallstone formation

sickle cell anemia

*abnormal hemoglobin
*found in black people
*sickle cell shaped

thalassenia anemia

*inherited anemia
*RBCs microcytic &short lived
*skeletal deformities/swelling of spleen&liver

hemolytic disease of newborn & erythroblastosis fetalis

*blood ABO or RH factoring compatibility b/w mother and baby during pregnancy
*destroy the unborn baby's red cells
*jaundice,intravascular coagulation,heart &lung damage
*TX: blood transfusions, rhogam

white blood cells(leukocytes)

*presence of granules or absence of granules
*WBC count-normal 5k-10k mm3 of blood


*abnormally LOW WBC count
*malfunction of blood forming tissues (AIDS)


abnormally HIGH WBC count
*bacterial infections
*classic sign in blood cancers (leukemia)


WBC - related blood cancer

infectious mononucleolis

*virus present in saliva
*fever/fatigue/sore throat/rash/swollen lymph node
*resolve 4-6 weeks


*blood clotting
*blood-vessel damage
*platelet plug
*become part of clot itself

clotting mechanism

1-damaged tissue cells release clotting factors
6. fibrin
*tangle to trap RBC blood clot

altering blood clotting mechanism

*vitamin k
*coumadin delayclotting

clotting disorders

1. thrombus- stationary
2. embolus-circulating
3.hemophilia-"bleeding disease" inherited/inability to produce blood clotting factor
4.thrombocytopenia-reduced platelet count / bone marrow destruction

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