KINE 310 EXAM 2
Terms in this set (84)
Focus on a competitive result of an event.
Focus on achieving standards of performance or objectives independently of other competitors
Focus on the actions an individual must engage in during performance to execute or perform well.
Effect of type of goal on improvement
Those that focus solely on outcome goals do not see the same improvement as those focusing on only performance or process
Problem w/ outcome goals
Outcome goals can facilitate short-term motivation, but often lead to anxiety before and during competition.
Regarding Performance & Process Goals
More precise than outcome goals and less dependent on the behavior of others.
Are particularly useful before or during competition.
Too much focus on a specific performance goal (e.g., running a personal best) can create anxiety.
How well does goal setting work?
In sport and exercise psychology, goal setting has been shown to work well, although not quite as well as in business.
Goal setting: how does it work?
Developing new learning strategies
Effective goal setting
Identify time constraints
Use moderately difficult goals
Group goal-setting principles
Establish long-term goals first.
Establish clear short-term goals (objectives) that lead to long-term goals.
Involve all members of the team in establishing team goals.
Monitor progress toward team goals.
Reward progress made towards goals.
Foster collective team confidence concerning team goals.
Common Problems in Goal Setting
Convincing students, athletes, and exercisers to set goals
Failing to set specific goals
Setting too many goals too soon
Failing to adjust goals
Failure to recognize individual differences
Not providing follow-up and evaluation
Factors affecting the efficiency of imagery
Skill level of athlete
Cognitive component of the skills
Neuromuscular activity patterns activated during imagery.
Hypothesized to be identical to those used during actual movement (much smaller magnitude).
More definitive research needed.
Positron emission tomography scanning (PET) functional magnetic resonance image (MRI) may be tools to examine imagery.
Symbolic learning theory
Imagery functions as a coding system to help understand and acquire movement patterns.
Imagery works because motor sequences, task goals and alternative solutions are considered cognitively before a response is required.
More helpful with sports with high cognitive skill demand vs. motor skill demand.
Attention & Arousal Set Theory
Combines cognitive aspect of symbolic learning theory and physiological aspect of psychoneuromusclar theory
Imagery helps performance in two ways
Help adjust arousal level
Help selectively attend to task at hand
Functional Equivalence Hypothesis
Imaged actions and physical execution of action share same neurophysiological processes.
Early stages of learning: less likeness between imaging and actual action
Later stages of learning: more likeness between imaging and actual action
More functionally similar imaging has a greater positive effect on performance.
Measurement of imagery
Questionnaires to address:
Pavio's two-dimensional model (1985)
Applied model of imagery use in sport (Martin, Moritz & Hall, 1999)
4 W's of Imagery Use
Where And When
Practice or competition
What - content & quality
sessions (duration, frequency)
nature (positive, negative, accuracy)
Mode (visual, kinesthetic, auditory, olfactory)
Uses of Imagery
Control emotional responses.
Acquire, practice, and correct specific skills.
Acquire and practice strategy.
Prepare for competition.
Cope with pain and adversity.
Developing Imagery Skills
Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions Programs Using Imagery and Relaxation
Visual Motor Behavioral Rehearsal (VMBR)
Relaxation training for mastery
Stress Inoculation Training (SIT)
Stress Management Training (SMT)
Conceptualization of stress phase
Hypnosis in Sport
Cognitive behavioral process
". . . the uncritical acceptance of a suggestion"
A procedure wherein changes in sensations, thoughts, feelings or behaviors are suggested.
An induced temporary condition of being, a state that differed mentally and physiologically from a person normal state of being.
Theories of Hypnosis: Social Cognitive Theory
Reject notion of hypnotic state, prefer perspective of an interpersonal process. (Sarbin, 1989; Spanos, 1991)
Theories of Hypnosis: Altered state of consciousness.
While in this state (not daydreaming or relaxation) are susceptible to suggestion. (Erickson, 1980)
Theories of Hypnosis: Neodissociation Theory
Central control system vs. autonomous subordinate cognitive-behavioral systems
"Hypnotic suggestions are believed to act upon the central control structure, causing it to create a communication barrier that separates a segment of itself from conscious awareness" (Cox, 2007, p. 312).
Hypnotic Trait Issue
Personality disposition towards hypnotic responsiveness
No special skill/ability
Requires stable imaginative inclination; must be convinced you are capable of responding
Responsiveness to the most difficult suggestions requires a rare aptitude
Hypnosis myths debunked
Ability to submit to hypnotic experiences does not indicate gullibility or weakness.
Responsiveness depends on the efforts and abilities of individual rather than therapist's skill.
While hypnotized a person retains ability to control behavior.
Spontaneous amnesia or forgetting is relatively rare following hypnosis.
Don't need to be hypnotized to be responsive to suggestions.
Is not a dangerous procedure when practiced by qualified individuals.
Preparation of the participant
Post hypnotic suggestion
Phases identical to heterohypnosis
Similar to autogenic training, meditation, etc.
Hypnosis and Athletic Performance
Techniques to address arousal are more useful than hypnotic suggestions for strength and endurance activities.
Hypnosis and Athletic Performance
Positive suggestions are effective in facilitating performance.
Negative suggestions usually cause a decrement in performance.
Can help a successful athlete, but can't make a poor performer into a good performer.
Psychological Skill Training (PST)
The systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills for the purpose of enhancing performance, increasing enjoyment, or achieving greater self-satisfaction.
3 phases of developing an Effective PST Program
Designing and Implementing a PST Program: What to include?
Qualities to develop (e.g. anxiety management, confidence).
Procedures or techniques to develop skills (e.g., arousal regulation, imagery, goal setting).
Coping strategies and styles
Problem - focused
Centers on addressing the environmental stimulus that is causing the stress response
Emotion - focused
Seek to regulate emotions in order to manage or reduce cognitive distress
Factors that help Generalizability of Coping
Recognition of stimulus generality
Broad application of coping skill
Personal significance of coping application
Internal locus of control for coping skill
Perception of self-determination
What is Self-Talk?
Task-specific statements relating to technique
Encouragement and effort
*Brief and phonetically simple
*Logically associated with skill
*Compatible with sequential timing of task
Creating and changing mood
Systematically tensing and relaxing specific muscle groups
Goal: evoke a relaxation response
Relies on feelings associated with limbs and muscles vs. contraction/relaxation of muscles
Requires time to master
Use instrument to facilitate control response of the autonomic nervous system
Similar to other practices in learning to lower arousal and increase relaxation
Instrumentation includes monitoring of skin temperature, EMG, EEG, etc.
a generic term describing emotions, feelings, moods
a situation-specific feeling usually in response to the environment. A short lived and temporary state
a persistent state of affect or emotionality related to the individual circumstances.
One of many emotions resulting from appraisal & interpretation of an environmental situation.
Seyle's Concept of Stress
Stress response is neutral, but antecedent is perceived as positive or negative
Eustress "good stress"
Distress "bad stress"
Parallels concept of arousal
Physiological signs (heart rate, respiration,
muscle tension, biochemical indicators)
Trait or state measures, unidimensional and multidimensional self-report scales
Behavioral & Observational
As an individual's arousal or state anxiety increases, so too does performance.
a.k.a. Yerkes-Dodson Law
Stage of learning is important in determining optimal level
Cue Utilization Theory (Easterbrook, 1959)
As arousal increases, attention narrows
Probability for errors increases as number of cues increases
Signal Detection Theory
If arousal is too low or too high information is missed.
Optimal level of arousal to attend to cues.
A mood state:
a persistent state of affect or emotionality related to the individual circumstances.
Profile of Mood States (POMS)
The most commonly used method of measuring mood states in sport
POMS (McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1992)
Comprised of 65 items that measure six mood states:
Profile of Mood States (POMS)
Morgan (1979) first to apply POMS in sport and exercise research
"Iceberg Profile" is the term used to describe ideal mood profile frequently found in elite athletes
Subscales associated with negative moods are significantly lower than the population norm while vigor is significantly higher
"mental health model"
Research and POMS
Prediction of performance was dependent of type of sport and how performance was measured.
Open vs. closed skill
Individual vs. team
Long vs. short duration
Subjective vs. objective measures of performance
Conceptual Model (Lane and Terry, 2000)
Helps explain the relationship between pre-competitive mood and performance
High levels of depression associated with
increased anger, tension, confusion and fatigue,
vigor facilitates performance
fatigue and confusion detract from performance
anger and tension have a curvilinear effect on performance
Multidimensional Anxiety Theory
Anxiety is multidimensional
Cognitive and somatic components of anxiety
Negative linear relationship exists between cognitive anxiety and performance
Developed by Fazey and Hardy (1988).
Upon reaching a certain point, athletes experience major negative performance changes
Change in athletic performance is related to cognitive anxiety
Drop in performance is greater with higher levels of cognitive anxiety
Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) Theory
Developed by Yuri Hanin (1989)
The level of prestart state anxiety often predicts performance
FLOW(Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, 1990)
Total absorption in a task- "Flowing" through a performance
Autotelic experience- ". . . self-contained activity done with no expectation of some future benefit, but simply because the doing is the reward. . ." Cox, 2012., pg. 196.
Characteristics of FLOW
Requirement of a challenge/skill balance
Merging of action and awareness
Clearly defined goals
Clear, unambiguous feedback
Total concentration on the skill being performed
Sense of being in control without trying to be in control (paradox of control)
Loss of self-awareness
Loss of time awareness
Jones (1995) Model of Anxiety/Performance
An individual's interpretation of anxiety symptoms is important for understanding the anxiety-performance relationship.
To understand the anxiety-performance relationship, consider both the intensity (how much anxiety one feels) and the direction (a person's interpretation of anxiety as facilitating or debilitating to performance).
Viewing anxiety as facilitative leads to superior performance.
State anxiety is perceived as facilitative or debilitative depending on how much control the person perceives.
Some support has been found for this view.
Developing cognitive skills and strategies helps people view anxiety as facilitative.
Reversal Theory: history
Developed by Apter (1982)
Reversal theory is a general theory of motivation, emotion, and personality that emphasizes why people change their perceptions and behavior in experiencing daily life (Apter, 2008).
Characteristics of similar to drive and inverted u.
Theory demonstrates importance of situation specific and individual approach to arousal & performance
Reversal Theory: Model
Set of subjective variables that can be experienced in different ways at different times -motivational states - 8 states in 4 pairs (domains)
Four states will be active at any time - one from each domain. States are neither intrinsically good or bad.
Pairs are mutually-exclusive.
Under certain circumstances, switches or 'reversals' between states will occur; switches are instantaneous.
The 4 metamotivational states are active at all times.
One pair will more salient for that individual at that time.
Each individual has some degree of 'dominance' toward one metamotivational state within each pair of metamotivational states.
How arousal affects performance depends on an individual's interpretation of his or her arousal level.
Arousal can be interpreted as pleasant (excitement) or as unpleasant (anxiety).
How Arousal Influences Performance
Increased muscle tension, fatigue, and coordination difficulties.
Changes in attention, concentration and visual search
Information processing model
stimulus --> mental operations --> response
Must focus attention in order to process a stimulus.
To respond to a stimulus, one must have memory storage capability to be able to process and retain pertinent received information.
Retrieval is crucial to be able to access retained information
Recall of stored information dictates an appropriate response
Limited Information Processing Capacity
We have a limited amount of processing space
Task demands may require part or all of that space
Attentional focus & attentional narrowing
Ability to attend to relative information and the narrowing of focus due to increased activation
Process of narrowing attention and gating out environmental cues
Inability to selectively attend to relevant stimuli due to high levels of arousal
Athlete has narrowed attention so much that they must shift focus to scan surrounding objects rather than seeing object peripherally while remaining focused.
Ability to shift attention from one location to another quickly
Task irrelevant thoughts that distract the attention of the performer
Fail to see cue in plain sight due to attentional overload
TAIS (Nideffer, 1976)
Individual's attention processes are a function of:
Width & Direction
Internal to external focus
Width dimension can be accurately measured, but the direction aspect is more difficult
Six Attentional Subscales
Ability to adopt an effective attention focus more important than disposition
How do you get focused?
Attention Control Training
Identify optimal level of arousal
Identify optimal width (broad vs. narrow)
Identify demands of sport
Must be aware of thought patterns
Use self-talk as a strategy
Process for thought stopping and centering:
Take out the negative thought and replace with a positive.
Center the attention internally; adjust arousal as necessary
Narrow focus of attention externally to a task-relevant cue.
As control is achieved, execute the skill
Tips for Improving Concentration
Use of simulations in practice.
Use cue words to focus (instructional and motivational words).
Employ nonjudgmental thinking.
Practice eye control
Develop competition plans
Over learn skills
Associative vs. Dissociative
Associators - attention focused internally
Dissociators - attention focused externally
Elite runners associators & less prone to injury
Less elite disassociators more prone to injury
Attentional focus and injury
Associators are working at greater intensity and are more susceptible to injury
Dissociators are in a more relaxed mode
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