What are the normal menstrual cycle phases?
What occurs in the Proliferative phase to the endometrium?
1. Small glands ad dense stroma
2. Mitosis within glands and stroma
What occurs in the Early Secretory phase to the endometrium?
1. Vacuolation of glandular epithelium
2. Ovulation leading to subnuclear vacuoles
What occurs in the Late Secretory phase to the endometrium?
1. Spiral Arteries
2. Decidual stromal cells
3. Saw Tooth Glandular Pattern
Outline the Endometrium transformation in pregnancy:
1. Hypersecretory endometrium showing dilated glands
2. Decidual transfrmation of stromal cells
3. Infolding and vacuolation of the glandular epitheliam called the Arias-Stella Phenomenon
Discuss Anovulatory Uterine Bleeding:
Unknown etiology mostly, but can be due to a variety of syndromes:
Menarche or peri-menaupause
Estrogen secreting ovarian tumors
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Chronic Systemic Disease
Outline the pathogenesis of Anovulatory Uterine Bleeding:
1. Failure of ovulation
2. Persistent and unopposed exposure to estrogen
3. Persistent proliferation of the endometrium
4. Ischemic necrosis and bleeding
What are the clinical features of Chronic Endometritis?
1. Abnormal bleeding
Which diseases can cause a secondary chronic endometritis?
1. Chronic PID in patients
2. Retained gestational tissue
3. Women with Intrauterine contraceptive devices
What is the difference between Adenomyosis and Endometriosis?
Adenomyosis is endometrial tissue within the myometrium. It can be asymptomatic or bring blood, pain, or dyspereunia. There is an enlarged uterus. This is seen with endometrial glands in the myometrium.
Endometriosis is endometrial tissue in an abnormal location. There is cyclicl dysmenorrhea, dyschesia, dyspereunia, and bowel symptoms. There is "chocolate cyst of ovary". This is located in specific areas and the cysts are filled with brown fluid, endometrial glands, endometrial stroma, and hemosiderin.
What is the metastatic theory of the pathogenesis of endometriosis?
Endometriosis occurs due to the regurgitation of endometrial tissue. Or the Vascular / Lymphatic disemination.
What is the metaplastic theory of the pathogenesis of endometriosis?
That it is due to differentiation in the coelomic cavity.
Discuss Endometrial Polyps:
1. Due to a possible Tamoxifen administration
2. Dilated/Atrophic glands
3. Ulceration leads to uterine bleeding
Discuss Endometrial Hyperplasia:
1. Proliferation of endometrial glands
2. There is unopposed estrogen stimulation
3. Menorrhagia, Metrorrhagia
4. THIS INCREASES THE RISK OF ENDOMETROID ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA
Outline the pathology of Endometrial Hyperplasia:
1. Simple Hyperplasia with minimal gland croding and small cysts
2. Complex Hyperplasia with crowded back to back glands.
3. Atypical Complex Hyperplasia with nuclear pleomorphis and mitoses
What are the risk factors of Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma?
1. 55-65 yr
2. Unopposed estrogen and immunosuppression
3. Obesity, early menarche, late menopause, polycystic ovary syndrome, nulliparity, tamoxifen, DM, HTN
What are the grades of Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma?
Grade 1- Well Differentiated has only glands
Grade 2- Moderately differentiated 50/50
Grade 3- Poorly differentiated >50% of solid areas
Discuss Non-Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma:
Seen in older women 65-75 years. Mostly due to an Estrogen Deficiency. This has a poor prognosis.
They are all poorly diferentiated.
Outline the natural history of non-endometrioid endomtrial carcinoma:
1. Atrophic Endometrium
2. Endometrial Intraepithelial Carcinoma
3. Serous Carcinoma
What are the types of Non-Endometriod Endometrial Carcinoma?
1. Serous Carcinoma from endometrial surface epithelium
2. Clear Cell Carcinoma resembling gestational endometrium
3. Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor showing both glandular and stromal compartments are malignant
Discuss Type 1 Endometrial Carcinoma:
55-65 years old. This is due to unopposed estrogen, obesity, HTN, or DM. It is Endometrioid and is preceded by Hyperplasia.
Its unique markers are PTEN, MSI, B-catenin.
It spreads via lymphatics.
Discuss Type 2 Endometrial Carcinoma:
65-75 years old. This is seen with atrophy and thin plaque. Morphoogically it is serous, clear cell, and mixed mullerian tumor. The precursor is endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma
Most common gynecological tumor. Location is submucosa, intramural, and subserosal.
Estrogen promotes their growth but does not initiate it.
There is no malignant transformation
What is seen histologically in a Leiomyoma?
1. Bundles and Whorls of smooth mucle cells.
2. NO cellular or nuclear atypia
3. Low mitotic activity. But there is a mitotically active subtype