Earth Science MTTC- Astronomy
Terms in this set (108)
Lines that run north and south across the earth. Also called meridians.
Lines that run east and west across the earth in circles. Also called parallels.
Several thousand kilometers above the equator
The angle between the vertical plane containing it and the plane of the meridian
The angle at which an imaginary arc running downward from an object until it intersects with the horizon at a right angle. Between 0 and 90 degrees.
The point opposite the zenith, directly beneath the observer.
The point directly overhead.
The path that the sun follows against the background of the stars during the year.
-23.5 and +23.5 degrees
Northern Circumpolar Constellations
Constellations that are visible all year round in polar regions. Ursa Minor, Ursa Major, Cassiopeia, Cepheus, Draco, and Perseus
Southern Circumpolar Constellations
Constellations that are visible all year round in polar regions. Crux and Musca, Triangulum and Apus, Pavo, Tucana, Hydrus, Reticulum, Mensa, Volans, Carina, Chameleon and Octans
Diameter of the Moon
Point of moon's orbit when it is nearest the Earth
Point of moon's orbit when it is farthest from the Earth.
Lunar Orbital Period
29 1/2 days
Sidereal Lunar Orbital Period
27 days and 7 hours
The wobbling of the moon's face relative to the Earth.
New Moon Phase
Cannot see the moon
Waxing Crescent Moon
Crescent after the new moon.
First Quarter Moon
Can see half of the moon lit up after Waxing Crescent
Waxing Gibbous Moon
After first quarter moon, more than half of the moon lit up
Full Moon Phase
Can see the whole moon lit up
Waning Gibbous Moon
More than half of the moon lit up after a full moon
Third Quarter Moon
Can see half of the moon lit up after Waning Gibbous
Waning Crescent Moon
Less than half of the moon lit up, after third quarter
A dark region of considerable extent on the surface of the moon
Discovered that the moon was not flat, that it had craters
Imaginary line that earth rotates around, the earth is tilted at 23.5 degrees angle in relation to the sun
The Earth's farthest point from the sun
Earth's closest approach to the sun
Distance from the sun
The process that keeps the sun burning. Pressure caused by gravity drives hydrogen atoms together and they combine into helium
A cooler darker spot appearing periodically on the sun's photosphere
Last sunspot maximum
The year 2000
The part of a shadow surrounding the darkest part resulting from obstruction of light
A region of complete shadow resulting from total obstruction of light
Sudden, bright eruptions that send high]speed, charged subatomic particles flying off into space
Smallest planet, closest to the sun, has phases, made of hot silicates and iron
1 day is 243 Earth days, 1 year is 225 Earth days, thick atmosphere, high pressure, hazardous chemicals in atmosphere, greenhouse gases, retrograde rotation
Planet made up of he same things that Earth is, home to Olympus Mons (Mount Olympus), impacted with craters, water ice and frozen carbon dioxide in the polar caps, massive storms
Moon belonging to Mars, outer and smaller moon, slow orbit
Moon belonging to Mars, inner and larger moon, faster orbit, will likely crash into Mars
Largest planet, HUGE magnetic field, 1 day is 10 Earth hours, less dense than Earth, made up of hydrogen, helium, and other trace gases, 66 moons
Great Red Spot
Spot on Jupiter that spins counter-clockwise, thought to be a giant storm like a hurricane
The closest of Jupiter's moons. Discovered by Galileo. Innermost moon, plentiful in volcanoes, made of molten iron and silicates
The 4th largest of Jupiter's satellites. Discovered by Galileo. Second closest to Jupiter, layer of water and ice surrounds the mantle, could have life on it.
Largest moon in the solar system and belongs to Jupiter. Discovered by Galileo. Made of silicates, water ice, and a salt water ocean under a thick layer of ice.
A moon of jupiter covered in huge craters and dirty ice. Discovered by Galileo. Made of rocks and ice, subsurface ocean that could harbor life.
A large impact crater on Mercury about 1,550km in diameter, one of the largest in the solar system
Surrounded by rings, Made of hydrogen and helium, 53 moons, cold, low density.
Very far away from the sun, cold, made up of hydrogen, helium, methane, and ammonia, has rings that run north to south
Small rings, orbit intersects with Pluto's orbit, made of hydrogen and helium, the last planet in the solar system.
Dwarf planet, in the Kuiper Belt, was the ninth planet.
Arrangement of the solar system that places the Earth at the center with the sun and planets orbiting the Earth; Aristotle.
Each planet moves on a small circle whose center moves around earth on a larger circle, thought of by Ptolemy
The idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun. Thought of by Nicolaus Copernicus
Kepler's First Law
Planets orbit the sun in elliptical orbits. The sun is at one focus.
Kepler's Second Law
As a planet moves around its orbit, it sweeps out equal areas in equal times
Kepler's Third Law
A planet's orbital period squared is proportional to its average distance from the sun cubed
A passing star came to close and exerted phenomenal amount of gravitational force spilling material that resulted in the formation of our solar system
A model for the origin of the solar system that supposes a rotating nebula of dust and gases that contracted to form the Sun and planets.
A flat, rotating disk of gas and dust surrounding a condensed mass, such as a young stellar object, a forming planet, or a collapsed star in a binary pair
One of Saturn's moons, very similar to Earth, could host life, thick atmosphere with haze.
One of Saturn's moons, keeps its face towards Saturn all the time, tons of craters and water ice
One of Saturn's moons, one side is white, one side is dark as tar, craters are on the dark side
One of Saturn's moons, orbits in a perfect circle, made of water ice, wispy markings suggest water vapor has escaped the interior
One of Saturn's moons, consists of mainly water ice, has a long surface canyon
Uranus's largest moon
Neptune's largest moon, coldest body in the solar system, orbits Neptune in the opposite direction of the other planets
A region of the solar system that is just beyond the orbit of Neptune and that contains small bodies made mostly of ice
The region of interplanetary space between Mars and Jupiter where most asteroids are found. Discovered by Johann Titius
A chunk of rock or dust in space.
Any of the small solid extraterrestrial bodies that hits the earth's atmosphere
Any of numerous small celestial bodies composed of rock and metal that move around the sun (mainly between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter)
A relatively small extraterrestrial body consisting of a frozen mass that travels around the sun in a highly elliptical orbit
Parts of a Comet
Coma, core, tail
The distance that light travels in one year
3.26 light years
The apparent displacement of an object as seen from two different points that are not on a line with the object
Stellar Spectral Classes
OBAFGKM, Each category has subcategories from 0-9. O0 is hottest star, M9 is the coolest star,
H-R Diagram; A graph relating the surface temperatures and absolute brightness of stars
A contracting cloud of gas and dust with enough mass to form a star
Loose, disorganized appearance and contain no more than a few thousand stars
Groups of stars that are round and densely packed with stars, some containing more than a million stars
A cool collection of gas and dust silhouetted against a brighter background of stars and/or gas.
Nebula that glows brightly due to energy from a star within.
A nebula that was once thought to be a star with its planets but is now thought to be a very hot star surrounded by an expanding envelope of ionized gases that emit a fluorescent glow because of intense radiation from the star
Matter consisting of elementary particles that are the antiparticles of those making up normal matter
A star that results when a white dwarf stops giving off energy
The small, dense remains of a high-mass star after a supernova
A rapidly spinning neutron star that produces radio waves
Final stage in the evolution of a very massive star, where the core's mass collapses to a point that its gravity is so strong that not even light can escape
An enormously bright, distant galaxy with a giant black hole at its center
Optical telescope that has a large convex lens that produces an image that is viewed through the eyepiece
Optical telescope consisting of a large concave mirror that produces an image that is magnified by the eyepiece
Spectroscope for obtaining a mass spectrum by deflecting ions into a thin slit and measuring the ion current with an electrometer
The brightness of a star when viewed from Earth
The magnitude that a star would have if it were viewed from a distance of 10 parsecs (32.62 light years) from the earth
A shift in the spectra of distant galaxies toward longer wavelengths
Change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other
Material that falls back to the lunar surface after being blasted out by the impact of a space object
The observation that the farther away a galaxy is, the faster it is moving away.
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