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64 terms

Chapter 7 Study Guide

Questions and answers
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ATP
is known as the energy currency of a cell
carbohydrates
The main source of energy for humans is:
glucose
Which of the following has the most energy? cAMP, ADP, ATP, glucose, NADPH
sun
The ultimate source of energy for living things is the:
glycolysis or respiration
When molecules are broken apart in _________ the energy released in respiration is channeled into molecules of ATP.
glycolysis
results in the production of pyruvate
NAD+
Glycolysis depends on a continuous supply of
glucose
Before a ____ molecule can be broken down to release energy, two phosphate groups must be attached to ____.
ETP- electron transport phosphorylation
The greatest number of ATP molecules is produced in:
glycolysis, Krebs, ETP
Put the following processes in the correct operational sequence:
citrate
The first intermediate molecule produced in the Krebs cycle is:
twice
To break down a glucose molecule completely requires how many passes through the Krebs cycle?
carbon dioxide, energy, and hydrogen
The breakdown of pyruvate in the Krebs cycle results in the release of:
matrix (mitochondrion)
The Krebs cycle takes place in the:
NAD+
____ is capable of being reduced during both glycolysis and the Krebs cycle.
oxygen
The energy used to generate most of the ATP formed in aerobic respiration is released when electrons ultimately are passed from NADH to what molecule?
water
Which of the following is NOT ordinarily capable of being reduced at any time? NAD+, FAD, oxygen (O2), water
oxygen
The ultimate electron acceptor in aerobic respiration is:
hydrogen
During electron transport phosphorylation, which ions accumulate in the outer compartment of the mitochondria?
Lactate
____production in muscle cells is temporary, and due to oxygen deficiency.
mountain streams
You can find anaerobic bacteria in all of the following places, EXCEPT: the guts of farm animals, swamps, mountain streams, sediments of lakes and oceans, sealed canned goods
anaerobic
Fermentation may occur in a muscle under ______ conditions.
lactate, ethanol, carbon dioxide
If fermentation follows glycolysis, the two NADH molecules produced during glycolysis will (depending on the organism) be used to reduce pyruvate into either _____or _____and____.
urea
____is the waste product of amino acid metabolism.
glycolysis
_____ is the process that splits glucose into two pyruvate molecules.
ETP
___uses a membrane-bound system that contains cytochromes to produce ATP.
Krebs
The____ cycle produces ATP, NADH, and CO2.
Fermentation
______ regenerates NAD+ as pyruvate is converted to ethanol or lactate.
Acetyl-CoA
____ formation produces NADH and CO2; changes pyruvate.
aerobic respiration
This process yields the most energy
lactate fermentation
This process yields a final product called lactate
alcoholic fermentation
This process yields two molecules of ATP and the final product ethanol
glycolysis
This process precedes the Krebs cycle
aerorobic respiration
This process involves electron transport phosphorylation
oxygen
Aerobes use ____ as the final electron acceptor in ETP.
hydrogen
The amount of energy released from glucose molecule is dependent on what happens to ______ atoms?
aerobic
____ respiration liberates the most energy in the form of ATP.
ATP
___can be produced by photosynthesis; is produced in the degradation of organic compounds such as glucose; is generated in anaerobic respiration; is released in aerobic respiration.
glycolysis
Pyruvate can be regarded as the end product of ____
PGAL
In the breakdown of glucose, the compound formed after two phosphorylation reactions is split into two 3-carbon compounds. The 3-carbon compound is named__.
phosphorylation
The conversion of PGAL to pyruvate involves substrate-level_____
two
H0ow many ATP molecules (net yield) are produced per molecule of glucose degraded during glycolysis?
pyruvate
The end product(s) of glycolysis is (are):
SLP
What is the name of the process by which reduced NAD+ transfers electrons to oxygen?
ETP
When glucose is used as the energy source, the largest amount of ATP is produced in:
Acetyl-CoA
___formation is a transition from glycolysis to the Krebs cycle.
Krebs
During which phase of aerobic respiration is ATP produced directly by substrate-level phosphorylation?
oxaloacetate
The last intermediate produced in the Krebs cycle is:
lactate
Sour cream and sour milk are produced by bacteria that form:
lactate
Under anaerobic conditions, muscle cells produce:
sulfate
The bacteria that live in hot springs use ___ as their final hydrogen acceptor.
fermentation, glycolysis
The first forms of life that produced ATP probably used pathways similar to _____&_____.
Chemiosmotic Theory
The generation of concentration gradients across the membranes of mitochondria is known as which theory of ATP production?
Krebs
When proteins and fats are used as energy sources, their breakdown subunits enter the ____ cycle.
glycogen
WHen blood glucose levels decrease (as between meals) what reserves are tapped?
glycolysis, Krebs
Molecules associated with ____and the _____ cycle provide sources of energy for ATP formation, and intermediates in the formation of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.
2%
In glycolysis, approximately what percent of the toltal energy in glucose is released?
False
When ATP concentration declines, enzymatic activity that produces ATP declines.
ATP
Which is not a hydrogen acceptor: oxygen, cytochrome, ATP, NAD+, FAD
lactate
This compound is the end product of anaerobic respiration exercising muscle.
pyruvate
This compound is the end product of glycolysis
acetaldehyde
This compound is an intermediate product of alcoholic fermentation, but not lactate fermentation
lactate
This compound is the most likely end product of a human runner experiencing an oxygen debt.
ethanol
This compound is utilized in alcoholic fermentaiton and lactate fermentation