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mineral element needed ofr process of bone formation, coagulation of blood, excitation of cardiac and skeletal muscle, maintenance of muscle tone, conduction of neuromuscular impulses, and synthesis and regulation of endocrine and exocrine glands
concentrated in bone, cartilage, and within the cell itself, required for use of adenosine triphosphate as source of energy; necessary for action of numerous enzyme systems such as carb metabolism, protein synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis, and contraction of muscular tissue; regulates neuromuscular activity and clotting mechanism
principal electrolyte of intracellular fluid and primary buffer within cell; needed for nerve conduction, muscle function, acid-base balance, and osmotic pressure; controls rate and force of contraction of heart and thus cardiac output
needed for generation of bony tissue; functions in metabolism of glucose and lipids, maintenance of acid-base balance, and in storage and transfer of energy from one site to another
abundant electrolyte that maintains osmotic pressure and acid-base balance and transmits nerve impulses
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